English Literature Fundamentals: rulers, authors, events

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Venerable Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of England
-Morik/scholar: recorded history of early Christian England (Anglo-Saxon era)
-Most responsible for our knowledge of England before 8th century
Alfred the Great
-Ended Danish conquests in England
-Promoted English culture (religion, law, economics, military)
-Made English an established written language
-King of England
-First great work of English national literature
-Oral narrative recited by harpist-bards in Old English
-Written in a manuscript around 1,000
The Battle of Hastings
-Battle won by William the Conqueror which destroyed Anglo-Saxon rule in England
William the Conquerer
-bastard child
-ends the Anglo-Saxon era
The Bayuex Tapestry
-230+ ft. long embroidered artwork describing the Norman Invasion and Battle of Hastings
The Magna Carta
-created system “by and for the people” w/ person rights/freedoms
-The “great charter” King John of England was forced to grant
Geoffrey Chauce
-“Father of English Lit” 1st to artistically master English
The Canterbury Tales
-Chaucer’s poem about travelers in story-telling competition
Le Morte d’ Arthur
-Book by Thomas Malory about the (fictional?) life of King Arthur
-set of ideals in Middle Ages (justice, loyalty, courage, faith, etc. Knights were to follow)
Black Death
-pandemic that killed off nearly 60% of Europe’s population
The Crusades
-Christian military campaigns (appx. 1096-1270) designed to take back Holy land from Muslims
William Caxton
-First English printer, introduced printing press to England
Henry VIII
-Bold/bloody king
-Made himself head Church of England
-Married 6 times (beheaded 2)
-Established Royal Navy
The Anglican Church
-Church of England
-Formed when Henry VIII broke from pope in 1533
The Spanish Armada
-Fleet of 130 warships against England by King Philip II of Spain
Elizabeth I
-daughter of Henry VIII
-reestablished Church of England after Bloody Mary turned it back to the pope
James I
-sponsored new translation of the Bible; promoted Shakespeare (MacBeth)
The Gunpowder Plot, Guy Fawkes
-plot to blow up Parliament and end James I’s reign
-it failed; Guy Fawkes executed
The Bard of Stratford on Avon
-April 23rd- birthday, day of death
-36 plays, 154 sonnets
John Milton
-English poet who served under Oliver Cromwell
-Puritan rebel!
Paradise Lost
-epic poem by Milton written in blank verse about biblical fall of men
Oliver Cromwell
-Dictator who ruled England w/ Parliament instead of Monarchy
The Protectorate
-Government of England under Oliver Cromwell from 1653-1658
-Britain’s legislatures
House of Commons
-most powerful house
House of Lords
-similar functions to Commons, more limited
-year of the Great Fire that nearly destroyed London
-87 churches, 13,000 houses burned
George III
-English king who lost the American colonies during Revolutionary War
Categories: English Literature