Grade 12 Poetry Terms

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speaker
the narrator of a poem
stanza
a group of lines arranged together
couplet
a stanza consisting of two successive lines of verse
rhythm
a pattern recurring at regular intervals, can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain,
meter
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
free verse
no repeating patterns of syllables, no rhyme, conversational, modern
end rhyme
a word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line
internal rhyme
a word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line
approximate rhyme
rhyme in which the final sounds of words are similar but not identical. Also known as slant rhyme, imperfect rhyme, close rhyme, near rhyme,
rhyme scheme
a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always); this pattern is shown with letters
onomatopoeia
words that imitate the sound they name
alliteration
consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words
consonance
a type of alliteration in which the repeated consonant sounds are anywhere in the words
assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds
refrain
a sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem
simile
a comparison of two things using as or like
metaphor
a direct comparison of two unlike things
extended metaphor
a metaphor that goes several lines or possibly the entire length of the work
implied metaphor
a comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated
hyperbole
exaggeration often used for emphasis
personification
a figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
symbolism
a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents something else
allusion
a reference in a literary work to something famous, e.g. biblical, literary, historical
imagery
language that appeals to the senses
lyric poem
a short poem in first person point of view that expresses emotion
Shakespearean Sonnet
The sonnet form composed of three quatrains and a final couplet written in iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg
iamb
two feet, of poetry, the first being unstressed, the second stressed
oxymoron
a figure of speech consisting of two apparently contradictory terms
ballad
a type of poem that is meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature
narrative
a form of poetry that tells a story of a situation or event in anyone’s life
quatrain
a stanza of four lines
apostrophe
a technique by which a writer addresses an inanimate object, an idea, or a person who is either dead or absent.
blank verse
unrhymed poetry that has a regular rhythm and line length, especially iambic pentameter
caesura
a pause or break within a line of poetry
diction
word choice
epic
a long narrative poem telling of a hero’s deeds
enjambment
the continuation of meaning, without pause or break, from one line of poetry to the next
foot
a group of 2 or 3 syllables forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm
iambic pentameter
a common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable
paradox
a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
euphemism
a mild, indirect, or vague term substituting for a harsh, blunt, or offensive term
Italian sonnet
a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd. Also called a Petrachan sonnet.
dramatic poetry
poetry in which one or more characters speak
stress
emphasis on a syllable. Also known as accent.
slack syllable
an unstressed syllable
eye rhyme
rhyme that appears correct from spelling but does not rhyme because of pronunciation
repetition
repetition of a word, sound, phrase or idea
end-stopped line
end of phrase or sentence coincides with end of line (poetry)
Categories: Poetry