Exam Review: World Literature

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“ancients vs. moderns”
Ancients…..
– favored old ideas
– truth is universal
– “classical past”
– Artistic standards need never change

Moderns….
– Favored change
– Believed ideas of truth and continue to evolve
– looked to change society’s thinking on woman/individualism
– ancients weren’t perfect

argument from design
The argument that God’s existence is demonstrable from the evidence of design in the universe
bildunsroman
A novel of formation…education through experience
Main character grows from childhood to maturity and has to eventually embrace or reject his cultures beliefs
“literature as a mirror”
Literature reflects and comments on aspects of things people encounter in their daily lives
comedy
a literary genre and a type of dramatic work that is amusing and satirical in its tone, mostly having cheerful ending. The motif of this dramatic work is triumph over unpleasant circumstance by which to create comic effects, resulting in happy or successful conclusion.
complacency
a feeling of uncritical satisfaction with oneself…. “self-satisfaction”
convention
defining features of particular literary genres
deism
Belief in the existence of a supreme being
God has created the world, but is apart from it
didactic
Intended to instruct
Inclined to teach or moralize
Morally instructive
dynamic character
A character that experiences changes throughout a story
(The) Enlightenment
“Age of reason”
Emphasized reason and individualism
erziehungsroman
A novel of education and training
The education is formal or informal
Teacher/mentor…Ex.) Pangloss/Martin
folly
Lack of good sense…foolishness
hypocrisy
the practice of claiming to have moral standards or beliefs to which one’s own behavior does not conform; pretense
irony
the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect
philosophical optimism
– Leibniz
– We live in the best possible world
– God created a physical universe that applies the laws of physics
– Everything that takes place occurs for good
– looking at all things in a positive manner
problem of evil
It is the argument that an all-powerful, all-knowing, and all good God would not allow any evil to occur
providence
Protective care of God or of nature as a spiritual power
satire
A story that uses laughter and abusive language in an attempt to cure and punish wrong-doing. If it does not achieve the goal it is content with making jokes.
static character
A character that does not experience changes during the course of a story
target (as in satire)
Can be anything
Usually a specific person, law, or government
theodicy
Vindication of divine goodness and providence in view of the existence of evil
vice
An evil practice
Moral failing
Wicked conduct
canon of western literature
body of books (art) that we in the west look to as foundations of who we are today as a people
Canon/canonicity
What should be read/studied
What is considered better than other literature
It is an issue of power
classics/classicals
comparative literature
The study of the literature’s of two or more groups differing in cultural background and usually in language
cosmopolitan(ism)/kosmopolites
– “World citizen”
– “the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation are (or can and should be) citizens in a single community
culture wars
A conflict between groups with different ideals, beliefs, and philosophies
DWEMs
Dead white European Males
global literature (dif. from world literature)
Read solely in airline terminals…The airport bookstore is stocked by buyers who operate fist and foremost within a national context
Goethe
– popularized the concept of world literature
– “Goethe is the living embodiment of world literature, even of world literature as a whole”
hegemony
Leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others
Modernity
“the loss of certainty, and the realization that certainty can never be established, once and for all”
Moretti’s literature model (planetary, tree, wave)
-Planetary system
– each literary system is connected in some way
– Trees
– World Literature as a national thing
– Waves
– World literature comes to a place and invades it
Pollit’s literary “camps” (conservative, liberal, radical)
Conservative…Classics are classics for a reason
Liberal…There are other, newer classics that should be read
Radicals… The whole concept of the cannon is bogus
the “great unread”
Weltliteratur
International circulation and reception of literary works..Total of the world’s national literatures
Western world
direct quote
Quoting from an article word for word exactly as the author wrote it
plagiarism
the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own whether intentional or not.
paraphrase
Restating a text or a passage in other words, often to clarify meaning or show understanding
summary
A retelling of the most important parts of what was read
parenthetical citation
claim
point/”good” point
archetype
typical character, an action or a situation that seems to represent such universal patterns of human nature…..it is a universal symbol
classical/literary Chinese (as different from vernacular)
mimesis
imitation, representation, mimicry
modern
novel
novel of manners
verisimilitude
“of being true or real”
vernacular
language of the ordinary people
tragedy
a story that ends unhappily, usually w/death
Shakespearean tragedy
“wild justice”
when you are taking revenge on someone, you are taking the law into your own hands
conflict
soliloquy (the assumption the audience makes)
an extended speech given by a character while alone on stage
revenge tragedy
-Murder, usually in a violent, cowardly way
-Murder not punished
– Plotting of another character
– often a relative to avenge crime
Renaissance
cultural rebirth surrounded around art and literature
Elizabethan
related to the reign of Queen Elizabeth
Jacobean
related to the reign of King James
crisis moment
exposition
a. Exposition- (STEP I) Establishment of background, introduction of character… information that is needed to be known by the audience for the play to make sense.
conflict stage
b. Conflict stage- (STEP II) Comes from the word “agon” meaning trouble, torment, problem. The problem here is for Hamlet to avenge his father’s death by killing Claudius.
climax
c. Climax/Crisis- (STEP III) Significant pivot in the action. In this case, it is Hamlet passes over revenge on Claudius because he is praying.
consequences
d. Consequences stage- (STEP IV) Hamlet kills Polonius; Claudius now wants to kill Hamlet because he feels threatened. Hamlet will now be killed off because what he did was unmoral. Any kind of character that makes a unmoral mistake will likely die off in Shakespeare’s writings.
stage
catastrophe
resolution
(STEP V)We know the play is over, everyone dies, and the conflict is resolved. There will be peace… at least for now.
Candide
protagonist of the novel; good-hearted, but very naive; in love with Cunegonde; his opinions and actions are determined by the influence of outside factors
Cunegonde
daughter of a German baron who acts as Candide’s benefactor until he discovers Candide’s love for his daughter; young and beautiful; after her father’s castle is destroyed in war, a number of exploitative men enslave her or use her as a mistress
Pangloss
a philosopher and Candide’s tutor; optimistic belief that the world is “the best of all possible worlds”; he is an exaggerated parody of overly optimistic Enlightenment philosophers
Martin
cynical scholar whom Candide befriends as a travel companion; he has suffered a great deal in his life and preaches a philosophy of undiluted pessimism. he always expects nothing but the worst from the world, he often has trouble seeing the world as it really is.
Cacambo
he becomes Candide’s valet when Candide travels in South America; a mixed-race native of the Americas, morally honest; directly responsible for Candide’s reunion with Cunégonde. As a practical man of action, he stands in direct opposition to ineffectual philosophers such as Pangloss and Martin.
The Old Woman
born as the daughter of a Pope. She has experienced the death of a fiancé, rape by pirates, slavery, and cannibalism in wartime; becomes Cunégonde’s servant. Her misfortunes have made her cynical about human nature, but she does not give in to self-pity. She is wise, practical, and loyal to her mistress. Though she has often been close to suicide, she always finds a reason to live.
Paquette
she is the chambermaid of Cunégonde’s mother. She has an affair with Pangloss and gives him syphilis. She eventually turns to prostitution to support herself. Brother Giroflée is one of her clients. In Venice, Candide is moved by Paquette’s misery and gives her a large sum of money, which she quickly squanders.
Bro. Giroflee
a dissatisfied monk. His parents forced him into a monastery to enlarge his brother’s fortune. He pays for Paquette’s services. Like her, he is miserable and does not get any happier after Candide gives him a large sum of money.
Claudius
Hamlet’s uncle and the new King of Denmark; Hamlet finds his rise to power suspicious; he is a very cunning political figure
Gertrude
The Queen of Denmark, Hamlet’s mother, recently married to Claudius after the death of King Hamlet
Horatio
Hamlet’s close friend who studied with him at the University of Wittenberg (Germany); he is loyal and helpful to Hamlet
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern
two clumsy courtiers who were friends of Hamlet who are summoned by Claudius to figure out why Hamlet is acting so strange
Ophelia
Polonius’s daughter, with whom Hamlet is in love; she is very obedient to her father even in betraying Hamlet; towards the end of the play she goes insane
Polonius
The Lord Chamberlain of Claudius’s court and the father of Laertes and Ophelia; he is constantly evesdropping on people; his also considered pompous and arrogant
the Ghost
the specter of Hamlet’s recently deceased father; the apparition claims to have been murdered by Claudius and asks Hamlet to avenge him; much of the play revolves around Hamlet’s speculation concerning the specter.
Laertes
Polonius’s son and Ophelia’s brother; he spends most of the play in France; his character serves as a foil to Hamlet
Fortinbras
The young prince of Norway whose father was killed by Hamlet’s father; he is another foil to prince Hamlet and wishes to attack Denmark to avenge his father’s death
Hamlet
prince of Denmark; central protagonist in the play; his father has recently died and his wife has married his uncle, King Claudius
King Fortinbras
K. Fortinbras King of neighboring Norway who lost lands to Denmark in the last wa
Old Norway
Norway as it was when King Fortinbras was king before he was slain by King Hamlet
Baoyu
He was born with a jade in his mouth because he previously was a stone who was rejected; his father dislikes him because he is mischeiveous and only does femine things; Baoyu falls in love with Daiyu and becomes a monk when they can’t be together
Daiyu
She was brought into the world from being a flower when Baoyu watered her/it; Daiyu was brought to the Rongs’s house because her mother died; she is a beautiful and intelligent woman but doesn’t feel like part of the family; she falls in love with Baoyu and dies because they can’t be together
Jia Zheng
He is Baoyu’s father; he dislikes Baoyu because he prefers the company of women over men; he also dislikes Baoyu because he isn’t serious about his studies even though Jia Zheng is
Vanitas
the Taoist who discovers the stone after it lived its life a a mortal man and publishes the story and changes him name to Brother Amor
the monk
scrabby headed, crazy character who with the Taoist discovers the stone; he writes the original inscription on Baoyu’s jade and Baochoi’s gold stone; they try to take Shi-Yin’s daughter because she will cause great misfortune to the family but fail
the Taoist
lame and filthy man who with the monk discovers the stone; he gives Jia Rui the mirror which could save his life if he looked at the right side but he looked at the wrong side and died; they try to take Shi-Yin’s daughter because she will cause great misfortune to the family but fail
Yucun
He had his beginnings in a temple next door to Zhen Shi-yin. Shi-yin recognizes an intelligence in the boy and pays his way to the capitol to take an exam. After Yu-cun is dismissed from his job as mandarin, he works as tutor for Dai-yu for awhile before her mother dies
Baochoi
She is a cousin to both Baoyu and Daiyu; she is beautiful and pleasant; she was born with a gold stone with an inscription given by the monk; fate has it that the gold and jade are to be married mistakenly
Narrator (LSAA)
Koharu
Tahei
Jihei
Magoemnon
Osan
The main ideas, themes and questions of each of the assigned readings (Pollitt, Damrosch, Moretti, Shenk) on world literature.
Pollit
– Conservative
– liberal
– radical

Moretti
– World literature is a problem
– Trees, waves, planetary system
– Need to read from a distant

Schenk
– Canon is too western and omits many famous works from the east

Damrosch
– A work enters into world literature by a two part process
– Being read as literature
– Circulating out into a broader world beyond its culture

Origins of “world literature” as a field of study (Goethe) and the problems associated with it.
– In the 19th century, Goethe camp up with the idea of Weltliteratur which he described as being in circulation and reception of literature
– Moretti believes that it is a problem that asks for a new critical method and no one knows that method
What problems do we encounter in considering world literature? How might we deal with these problems?
We do not understand the culture that a writing is coming from and the translations of these works do not fit directly into words we understand in context. This can be dealt with by studying the culture of the time and place of writing and the translation can be solved with thesauruses to find out what the translation is trying to say.
What are the different positions or attitudes regarding the literary canon?
a. Radical- Read whatever you please
b. Conservative- Read what we know to be classics
c. Liberal- Read the new classics
What is world literature? What are its characteristics? How would each of the writers we’ve read answer these questions? You should be able to answer these questions based on the readings.
– Circulation of works in the world
– Read as literature
– Enters into circulation out into the world
What does it mean for a work to be canonical? Are canonical works necessarily better than others? Where do most people encounter canonical works? How are concerns about canonicity relevant to studying world literature?
It has to be officially recognized collection, anthology, list or roll. It is the great works of literature. They are of known quality and enduring popularity… something memorable. We have heard of canonical works even if we haven’t ever read them. And we experience them in a school setting.
What things must writers do in order to avoid plagiarism? You will need to look at original passages and student versions to determine whether the student has plagiarized or not.
Be sure you can distinguish properly done paraphrases (i.e. not plagiarism) from attempts at paraphrasing that result in plagiarism.
When (and how) should a source be cited?
What is a claim? How is it different from a thesis?
What are the ways that expectations about the kind of writing you do will change from high school to college.
Purpose of satire and how that purpose makes it different from the comedic.
1.) Make people laugh and then make them think
2.) Funny, but maybe we shouldn’t be laughing…because it really isn’t funny
3.) To force change for the better
The characters in Candide.
a. Candide— the protagonist of the novel, Candide is a good-hearted but hopelessly naïve young man.
b. Cunegonde– he daughter of a German baron who acts as Candide’s benefactor until he discovers Candide’s love for his daughter. Portrayed as being young and beautiful
c. Paquette— he chambermaid of Cunégonde’s mother. She has an affair with Pangloss and gives him syphilis. She eventually turns to prostitution to support herself.
d. Bro. Giroflee–is a dissatisfied monk. His parents forced him into a monastery to enlarge his brother’s fortune. He pays for Paquette’s services.
e. Pangloss—everything will be okay… what is around you is the best possible thing
f. Martin—pessimistic way of life, life is full of suffering and nothing will get better.
g. Old Woman—everyone is suffering and everyone thinks that their suffering is worse than everyone else’s.
Who Candide’s “teachers” are and the lessons he learns from them.
Pangloss
– “best of all possible worlds”
– His own experience contradicted his belief
– These can’t be an effect without a cause

Martin
– Cynical (distrustful) scholar
– Preaches philosophy of undiluted(not-weakened) pessimism (tendency to see the worst aspects of things)
– Believed the worst will happen
– Can’t see the world as it is

Cacambo
– Very practical
– opposes Pangloss and Martin

Old Woman
– Extremely wise from long difficult experiences in life

How the novel is didactic and the lessons it teaches.
It is didactic because many philosophies are brought to the table to teach the readers
The meaning of the line “we must cultivate our garden.”
– We must grow and strengthen our garden (life)
– We need to work hard to make our life the best life it can be
Answers to the questions from the “Assault on Philosophical Optimism” assignment.
Voltaire’s attitudes toward philosophical optimism, religion, humanity, philosophy, etc. as expressed in the novel.
Religion
– Central target of Voltaire’s mockery
– All religous characters were corrupt
– Outside of the fantasy world life sucked
Humanity
– Part of the natural continuum with animals
– Believed that if humans replaced their superstition/ignorance with knowledge the world would be better

Philosophy
– Its not good to explain deaths

Philosophical optimism
– whole point of Candide
– Believed in it
– Every time something bad would happen a good would be made out of it

How the earthquake near Lisbon, Portugal – and the reaction to it — affected Voltaire’s thinking.
– it proved Voltaire’s thinking
– Gods rule was not for mans best good
– “All will be well one day, that is our hope. All is well today, that is the illusion”
Observations from Hutton essay (the conversation he’s responding to, his claim, how he supports his claim, his conclusion).
The ways in which we might deal with readings with whose contexts we are unfamiliar.
Try to understand the historical significance surrounding a reading.
Important themes in Story of the Stone and Love Suicides at Amijima.
Definition of a novel.
a fictitious prose narrative of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism.
How Story of the Stone can be seen as a novel of manners.
Dominated by customs, manners, behavior of social class. Concerned with courtship of marriage. Realistic and sometimes satiric. Focus on domestic society.
Ways in which Asian literature seem to differ in values, techniques, etc. from Western literature.
The values of love in the stories we read is less due to the signifying of prostitution and the presence of servants is also different.
The significance and context of the emergence of the vernacular in Japan and China and the ways these changes in culture are similar to each other and to what’s happening in Europe during the 18th century.
The consequences of what can happen when private desire and social expectations are in conflict with each other in Story of the Stone and Love Suicides at Amijima.
The love that is felt between the characters destroys their lives. The characters in the SOTS the characters become ill when their love cannot occur and in LSSA the characters resort to suicide because they cannot be in love.
The ways in which the characters in Story of the Stone and Love Suicides at Amijima are dynamic or static.
Sources and conventions of revenge tragedy and how these elements are present in Hamlet.
Most revenge tragedies share some basic elements: a play within a play, mad scenes, a vengeful ghost, one or several gory scenes, and, most importantly, a central character who has a serious grievance against a formidable opponent. This central character takes matters into his own hands and seeks revenge privately, after justice has failed him in the public arena. It should be noted that Hamlet is the only protagonist in any Elizabethan revenge play who can be considered a hero, aware of the moral implications involved in exacting his revenge.
Elements of Shakespearean tragedy, especially the influence of character responsibility on character outcome. How each character in the play creates his/her own fate.
a. When Claudius killed King Hamlet fate originally struck him when he was killed
b. When Gertrude married Claudius fate struck her by killing her when she drank the cup
c. When Laertes tried to kill Hamlet, but got killed while attempting
3. Bacon’s ideas on revenge as typical of Elizabethan thought as expressed in his “On Revenge.”
a. Bacon believes that revenge is against social and moral law
b. Ignoring a wrong makes a man superior to the person who committed the first wrong
c. Since a wrong in the past can’t be made right, its best to concentrate on the future
d. Says no man seeks to do harm for his own sake
e. Revenge is selfish
f. During the Elizabethan period, revenge was considered a “duty”
Restoration of order? Does it happen or not? How so?
a. In Hamlet order was not visible
b. There were many evil acts in Hamlet that messed up all of the order
c. Evil must be conquered
d. Once the evil was conquered (Hamlet avenges his father’s death) the natural order of the environment was restored
e. Moral order was restored when evil was subdued
f. Hamlet restores the order
Five parts of a traditional, linear story – exposition, conflict stage, climax/crisis, consequences stage, resolution – and how they work in Hamlet.
a. Exposition- (STEP I) Establishment of background, introduction of character… information that is needed to be known by the audience for the play to make sense.
b. Conflict stage- (STEP II) Comes from the word “agon” meaning trouble, torment, problem. The problem here is for Hamlet to avenge his father’s death by killing Claudius.
c. Climax/Crisis- (STEP III) Significant pivot in the action. In this case, it is Hamlet passes over revenge on Claudius because he is praying.
d. Consequences stage- (STEP IV) Hamlet kills Polonius; Claudius now wants to kill Hamlet because he feels threatened. Hamlet will now be killed off because what he did was unmoral. Any kind of character that makes a unmoral mistake will likely die off in Shakespeare’s writings.
e. Resolution- (STEP V)We know the play is over, everyone dies, and the conflict is resolved. There will be peace… at least for now.
Basic chronology of what happens in the play – including events that occur before the play begins — and when.
a. King Fortinbras by King Hamlet
b. King Hamlet by Claudius
c. Polonius by Prince Hamlet
d. Ophelia by suicide
e. Rosencrantz by the King of England—b/c Hamlet changed the letters around
f. Guildenstern by the King of England—b/c Hamlet changed the letters around
g. Gertrude by the wine poisoned by Claudius, meant for Prince Hamlet
h. Claudius by Hamlet, was stabbed and forced to drink poisoned wine
i. Laertes by Hamlet, was wounded with his own poisoned sword
j. Hamlet by Laertes, was wounded by Laertes’s poisoned sword in the sword fight
Essay: Topic will require you to refer to each of the four works of literature we read – Hamlet, Candide, Story of the Stone and Love Suicides at Amijima – and will have something to do with love.
Categories: World Literature