Atomic Structure and nuclear energy

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Subtomic
Anything smaller than an atom. ( the particles that make up an atom).
Nucleus
center of atom, contains protons and neutrons.
Protons
nucleon with a positive charge. mass of one AMU
Neutrons
nucleon with no charge. mass of one AMU
Electron
Subatomic particle with a negative charge
Electron cloud
area around the nucleus where the electrons are found.
energy levels
paths in electron cloud where the electrons orbit the nucleus.
Valence
electrons in the outer most energy level. Responsible for chemical reactions.
Quarks
material that make up the protons and neutrons.
Atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus.
Atomic mass
number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. (average mass)
Electromagnetic force
attraction between charges. (holds electrons close to the nucleus.)
Strong nuclear force
neutrons and protons attract each other at very small distances. (strongest force)
Weak nuclear force
causes a neutron by itself to break down into a proton and an electron.
gravity
weakest force
isotopes
atoms of the same element but different # of neutrons.
Transmutation
changing of one atom into another element.
Binding of energy
total amount of energy holding the nucleus together. ( caused by strong and weak nuclear forces)
fusion
combining atomic nuclei to create a new element.
fission
nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei
parent nucleus
the original nucleus
daughter nucleus
when the nucleus splits into two
radioactive
break down and give off subatomic particles and radiation
Alpha decay
nucleus ejects 2 protons and neutrons
beta decay
neutron turns in proton and an electron (electron is ejected)
gamma decay
nucleus gives off energy as gamma rays to become more stable
half life
the time it takes for half of the atoms to decay
carbon dating
living thing contains lots of carbon
Radiation
flow of energy through space
non- ionizing radiation
low energy radiation
ionizing radiation
high energy that can break chemical bonds in molecules
Categories: Atomic Physics