Ch. 10 Nuclear Physics

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ATOMIC MASS
the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units
TRANSMUTATION
(physics) the change of one chemical element into another (as by nuclear decay or radioactive bombardment)
ALPHA PARTICLE
a positively charged particle emitted from certain radioactive nuclei; it consists of two protons and two neutrons and is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom
HALF LIFE
the period of time in which half of a radioactive substance decays
PROTON
a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
COMPOUND
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
IONIC BONDING
chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
PRESSURE
the force applied to a unit area of surface
ALPHA DECAY
radioactive decay of an atomic nucleaus that is accompanied by the emission of an alpha particle (a proton is emitted)
BETA DECAY
radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus that is accompanied by the emission of a beta particle (an electron is emitted)
BOHR DIAGRAM
a diagram that shows the arrangement of an element’s subatomic particles and the number of electrons in each shell surrounding the nucleus of an atom
LATITUDE
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
LONGITUDE
an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator
RADIATION
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
MOLECULE
(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
ISOTOPE
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
GAMMA RADIATION
electromagnetic radiation emitted during radioactive decay and having an extremely short wavelength
ELECTRON
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
BETA PARTICLE
a high-speed electron or positron emitted in the decay of a radioactive isotope
MIXTURE
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
REM
(Roentgen Equivalent Man) the dosage of ionizing radiation that will cause the same amount of injury to human tissue as 1 roentgen of X-rays
ATOM
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
NUCLEUS
the positively charged dense center of an atom
ATOMIC NUMBER
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
NEUTRON
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
ION
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
COVALENT BONDING
A chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms
RADIOMETRIC DATING
a method of determining the absolute age of an object by comparing the relative percentages of a radioactive (parent) isotope and a stable (daughter) isotope
FISSION
a nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
FUSION
a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
MASS DEFECT
The difference in mass between a nucleus and its component nucleons.
Categories: Atomic Physics