Ch 9 Atomic Physics

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a. Democritus
The ancient Greek who is known for
championing the concept of atom was named
______________.
a. Democritus
b. Socrates
c. Plato
d. Zeus
d. Thomson
Who discovered the electron in 1897?
a. Dalton
b. Bohr
c. Rutherford
d. Thomson
d. Dalton
The “billiard ball model” of the atom is
associated with _______.
a. Bohr.
b. Thomson.
c. Rutherford.
d. Dalton.
d. modern physics
The development of physics since about 1900
is called _______.
a. neoclassical physics.
b. Newtonian physics.
c. classical physics.
d. modern physics.
c. Electrons
Atomic physics deals mainly with phenomena
involving which particles in atoms?
a. Quarks
b. Protons
c. Electrons
d. Neutrons
c. Dalton
Aristotle’s “continuous” model of matter was
proved wrong about 1807 by
a. Bohr.
b. Thomson.
c. Dalton.
d. Rutherford
b. positive ion
Removal of an electron from an atom leaves a
_______.
a. neutron.
b. positive ion.
c. free quark.
d. negative ion.
a. atomic number
The number of electrons in an atom of an
element is the same as the element’s _______.
a. atomic number.
b. period number.
c. mass number.
d. group number.
d. frequency
According to Planck’s hypothesis, the energy of
an oscillator is directly proportional to its
_______.
a. amplitude.
b. wavelength.
c. momentum.
d. frequency.
d. energy
The greater the frequency of light, the greater
the _______ of its photons.
a. velocity
b. speed
c. wavelength
d. energy
c. Blue
Which of these colors of light has photons of
greatest energy?
a. Green
b. Red
c. Blue
d. Yellow
c. 1.49 × 1015 Hz
Calculate the frequency in hertz of photons of
light with energy of 9.90 × 10-19 J.
a. 0.67 × 1014 Hz
b. 0.67 × 1015 Hz
c. 1.49 × 1015 Hz
d. 1.49 × 1014 Hz
d. Red
Which of these colors of light has photons of
lowest energy?
a. Blue
b. Green
c. Yellow
d. Red
a. discrete amount
A quantum is a _______.
a. discrete amount.
b. fundamental property.
c. unit of momentum.
d. proton.
d. Einstein
Who won the Nobel Prize for explaining the
photoelectric effect?
a. Bohr
b. Planck
c. de Broglie
d. Einstein
c. Planck
Who developed the quantum theory in 1900
and has a constant named for him?
a. de Broglie
b. Bohr
c. Planck
d. Einstein
b. Continuous
Dispersing light from a hot wire gives what
type of spectrum?
a. Line absorption
b. Continuous
c. Line emission
d. Ultraviolet
c. Bohr.
The calculation of electron energy levels in the
hydrogen atom was done first by _______.
a. Schrödinger.
b. de Broglie.
c. Bohr.
d. Heisenberg.
d. 1
For a specific element, photons of how many
different energies could be emitted by electrons
in the n = 2 level as they return to the n = 1
level?
a. 3
b. 4
c. 2
d. 1
c. – 0.85 eV
Calculate the energy En (in eV) of a hydrogen
atom’s electron with n = 4.
a. – 54 eV
b. – 3.4 eV
c. – 0.85 eV
d. – 1.7 eV
b. absorb; 0.661 eV
If the energy of n = 3 is -1.51 eV and that of n
= 4 is -0.85 eV in a hydrogen atom, a
transition from n = 3 to n = 4 will _______ a
photon with an energy of approximately
_______.
a. emit; 2.36 eV
b. absorb; 0.661 eV
c. emit; 0.661 eV
d. absorb; 2.36 eV
c. electron energy levels are quantized.
Discrete wavelengths of light are emitted by an
excited gas because _______.
a. the speed of light is constant in a given
medium.
b. light can behave either as a wave or as a
particle.
c. electron energy levels are quantized.
d. the intensity of radiation is proportional to
the second power of the frequency
c. had the simplest atom.
Niels Bohr focused his attention on the element
hydrogen because it _______.
a. could be obtained in extremely high purity.
b. was so abundant.
c. had the simplest atom.
d. was inexpensive.
b. Balmer series.
The lines in the visible region of the hydrogen
spectrum are known as the _______.
a. Lyman series.
b. Balmer series.
c. Paschen series.
d. Bohr series.
a. Lyman series.
The transitions of an electron in the hydrogen
atom to the n = 1 level result in the _______.
a. Lyman series.
b. Balmer series.
c. Paschen series.
d. Bohr series.
c. 2.
The lines in the visible region of the hydrogen
spectrum arise from transitions from higher
levels back to the level where n equals
_______.
a. 3.
b. 1.
c. 2.
d. 4.
a. Ultraviolet
Fluorescence occurs when samples of some
materials are exposed to rays of which EMR
(Electromagnetic Radiation) region?
a. Ultraviolet
b. Infrared
c. Visible
d. Microwave
d. photon; emitted
When an electron in an atom falls from a
higher energy level to a lower one, a _______ is
_______.
a. proton; absorbed
b. proton; emitted
c. photon; absorbed
d. photon; emitted
a. a negative value.
In terms of energy levels of electrons, a
potential well has _______.
a. a negative value.
b. a positive or a negative value.
c. a positive value.
d. none of these.
d. ionization.
The removal of an electron from an atom is
called _______.
a. binding affinity.
b. atomizing.
c. electron affinity.
d. ionization.
a. the ground state.
The lowest energy level of a hydrogen atom (n
= 1) is called _______.
a. the ground state.
b. the potential state.
c. the ionization state.
d. none of these.
b. 7
Which is a possible value for the principal
quantum number n?
a. 3.14
b. 7
c. 2.5
d. None of these
d. 13.6 eV
How much energy must be absorbed to ionize a
hydrogen atom whose electron is in the ground
state (n = 1)?
a. Zero
b. 1 eV
c. 0.053 eV
d. 13.6 eV
c. 1.
When a hydrogen electron is in its ground
state, its principal quantum number is _______.
a. zero.
b. – 13.6 eV.
c. 1.
d. +13.6 eV.
e. none of these.
c. a photon is emitted.
When an electron goes from an excited state to
the ground state, _______.
a. energy is absorbed.
b. a photon is absorbed.
c. a photon is emitted.
d. none of these occur.
c. the electromagnetic force.
The most important force in the hydrogen atom
is _______.
a. the nuclear force.
b. the gravitational force.
c. the electromagnetic force.
d. none of these.
c. it is in its ground state.
An electron is in its lowest energy level when
_______.
a. it is free of nuclear forces.
b. its momentum is zero.
c. it is in its ground state.
d. none of these.
a. 2.5
Which of the following principal quantum
number values is impossible?
a. 2.5
b. 16
c. 3
d. 1
b. cooking with microwaves.
The energy differences in some of the
rotational energy levels of the water molecule
allow _______.
a. X-rays to be produced.
b. cooking with microwaves.
c. visible spectral lines to be formed.
d. lasers to operate.
b. conduction.
The interior of a large mass of food in a
microwave oven must be heated mainly by
_______.
a. radiation.
b. conduction.
c. convection.
d. radioactivity.
a. X-rays.
Wilhelm Roentgen discovered _______.
a. X-rays.
b. gamma rays.
c. radio waves.
d. microwaves.
c. X-rays
When fast electrons strike a metal target, what
are produced?
a. Radio waves
b. Gamma rays
c. X-rays
d. Microwaves
b. population inversion
When many of the atoms or molecules in a
sample have been excited into a metastable
state, a(n) _______ has occurred.
a. ultraviolet catastrophe
b. population inversion
c. coherent emission
d. incoherent absorption
a. stimulated emission.
The key process of a laser is _______.
a. stimulated emission.
b. Bremsstrahlung.
c. electron diffraction.
d. microwave absorption.
d. a wavelength.
According to the hypothesis of de Broglie, any
moving particle has _______.
a. energy.
b. a magnetic force field.
c. an electric force field.
d. a wavelength.
b. decreases.
As the speed of an object increases, its
wavelength _______.
a. remains unchanged.
b. decreases.
c. increases.
d. is zero.
a. diffract.
Matter waves were confirmed when it was
found that electrons _______.
a. diffract.
b. have a plus or minus spin quantum number.
c. possess a negative charge.
d. have mass.
c. de Broglie
Who, in 1925, postulated that matter, as well as
light, has properties of both waves and
particles?
a. Planck
b. Heisenberg
c. de Broglie
d. Einstein
d. 2.0 ×10-10 m
Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for an
electron (m = 1 × 10-30 kg) moving at 3.3 × 106
m/s.
a. 1.7 × 10-10 m
b. 2.2 × 10-10 m
c. 1.8 × 10-10 m
d. 2.0 ×10-10 m
d. mass.
The de Broglie wavelength of a particle is
inversely proportional to both its speed and its
_______.
a. spin.
b. electric charge.
c. volume.
d. mass.
c. Electron microscope
Which of these instruments is based on the
theory of matter waves?
a. Microwave oven
b. X-ray tube
c. Electron microscope
d. Cathode ray tube
c. A moving electron
With which object would the wave nature of
matter be significant?
a. A hard-thrown baseball
b. A speeding truck
c. A moving electron
d. An orbiting planet
d. energy
The smaller the frequency of light, the smaller
the _______ of its photons.
a. wavelength
b. speed
c. mass
d. energy
a. halve
Doubling the wavelength of a photon would
_______ its energy.
a. halve
b. double
c. quadruple
d. not change
d. all of these
The unit called the hertz (Hz) is equivalent to
_______.
a. 1/s only.
b. a reciprocal second only.
c. s-1 only.
d. all of these
a. Bohr.
The planetary model of the atom is associated
with _______.
a. Bohr.
b. Thomson.
c. Dalton.
d. Rutherford.
d. Planck.
The dilemma known as the ultraviolet
catastrophe was resolved in 1900 by _______.
a. Bohr.
b. Rutherford.
c. Einstein.
d. Planck.
b. Wave mechanics
Which is another name for quantum
mechanics?
a. Classical mechanics
b. Wave mechanics
c. Optical mechanics
d. Spherical mechanics
a. negative ion.
Addition of an electron to an atom gives a
_______.
a. negative ion.
b. neutron.
c. new element.
d. positive ion.
a. classical physics.
The development of physics prior to 1900 is
called _______.
a. classical physics.
b. neoclassical physics.
c. Galilean physics.
d. ancient physics.
c. The photoelectric effect
Which phenomenon shows that quanta of light,
or photons, exist?
a. Diffraction
b. Polarization
c. The photoelectric effect
d. Interference
b. high, but not 100%.
According to the Schrödinger equation, the
probability of finding a hydrogen atom’s
ground-state electron 0.053 nm from the proton
is _______.
a. zero.
b. high, but not 100%.
c. low, but not zero.
d. 100%.
b. 100%.
According to the Bohr theory, the probability
of finding a hydrogen atom’s ground-state
electron 0.053 nm from the proton is _______.
a. low, but not zero.
b. 100%.
c. zero.
d. high, but not 100%.
c. 1.3
Calculate the radius in nanometers of the orbit
of a hydrogen atom’s electron with n = 5.
a. 0.27
b. 2.7
c. 1.3
d. 0.13
b. the radius of the electron’s orbit is
increased.
When a hydrogen atom’s electron goes from an
energy state of n = 1 to n = 3, _______.
a. the radius of the electron’s orbit is
unchanged.
b. the radius of the electron’s orbit is
increased.
c. the radius of the electron’s orbit is
decreased.
d. the radius of the electron’s orbit is infinite.
d. Line emission
Dispersing light from a gas-discharge tube
produces what type of spectrum?
a. Ultraviolet
b. Line absorption
c. Continuous
d. Line emission
d. 6
For a specific element, photons of how many
different energies could be emitted by electrons
in the n = 4 level as they return to the n = 1
level?
a. 3
b. 5
c. 2
d. 6
c. Helium
Which element was detected in the Sun before
it was found on Earth?
a. Hydrogen
b. Promethium
c. Helium
d. Argon
c. auroras.
Charged particles from the Sun enter Earth’s
atmosphere close to the magnetic poles and
cause _______.
a. global cooling.
b. global warming.
c. auroras.
d. ozone depletion.
c. photon; absorbed
. When an electron in an atom moves from a
lower energy level to a higher one, a _______ is
_______.
a. photon; emitted
b. proton; emitted
c. photon; absorbed
d. proton; absorbed
b. 2.
When a hydrogen electron is in its first excited
state, its principal quantum number is _______.
a. zero.
b. 2.
c. – 13.60 eV.
d. 1.
d. both monochromatic and coherent.
A beam of laser light is _______.
a. neither monochromatic nor coherent.
b. monochromatic but not coherent.
c. coherent but not monochromatic.
d. both monochromatic and coherent.
d. a laser
The term stimulated emission would be used in
explaining the operation of _______.
a. an electron microscope.
b. an X-ray tube.
c. a microwave oven.
d. a laser
c. moving close to the speed of light.
Einstein’s special theory of relativity deals with
objects that are _______.
a. being hit by X-rays.
b. entering intense gravitational fields.
c. moving close to the speed of light.
d. being hit by energetic photons.
b. get more massive.
One prediction of Einstein’s special theory of
relativity is that objects traveling close to the
speed of light _______.
a. get lighter.
b. get more massive.
c. get longer.
d. disappear.
d. = h/mv
Which of the following is the de Broglie
equation?
a. E = mc2
b. E = hf
c. mvx h
d. = h/mv
a. phosphorescence
Glow-in-the-dark materials exhibit the
phenomenon called _______.
a. phosphorescence.
b. simulated absorption.
c. fluorescence.
d. stimulated emission.
c. very small particles, such as electrons.
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is most
important for _______.
a. very large objects, such as the Moon.
b. very large distances.
c. very small particles, such as electrons.
d. very small angular momentum.
b. Position and velocity
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that it
is impossible to know simultaneously which
two properties of a particle?
a. Momentum and energy
b. Position and velocity
c. Position and charge
d. Time and place
a. Schrödinger.
The term probability is associated with the
model of the atom proposed by
a. Schrödinger.
b. Heisenberg.
c. de Broglie.
d. Einstein.
c. Heisenberg
Theoretical limits on measurement accuracy
are set by a principle associated with which
scientist?
a. de Broglie
b. Schrödinger
c. Heisenberg
d. Pauli
b. Line spectra
The Bohr theory was developed to explain
which of these phenomena?
a. The photoelectric effect
b. Line spectra
c. Quantum numbers
d. X-rays
d. Rutherford.
The nuclear model of the atom is associated
with
a. Thomson.
b. Dalton.
c. Bohr.
d. Rutherford.
a. photon.
A quantum of electromagnetic radiation is
called a(n)
a. photon.
b. electron.
c. positron.
d. proton.
Categories: Atomic Physics