(Chapter 10 – Nuclear Physics) Introduction to Physical Science 13th ed.

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strong nuclear force
Fundamental force that holds the nucleus together
fusion
Process in which smaller nuclei combine to f0rm larger ones
neutrons
Neutral particles in atoms
radioactivity
Spontaneous process of nuclei changing by emitting particles or rays
electrons
Negatively charged particles in atoms
beta decay
Radioactive decay in which electrons are emitted
radioactive isotope
Specific types of nuclei that are unstable
mass number
The number of protons plus neutrons in a nucleus
nucleus
The central core of an atom
fission
Process in which a large nucleus splits and emits neutrons
carbon-14 dating
Used to date organic objects
protons
Positively charged particles in atoms
plasma
A hot gas of electrons and ions
atomic number
Z, the number of protons in an atom
critical mass
The minimum amount of fissionable material needed to sustain a chain reaction
neutron number
N, the number of neutrons in a nucleus
atomic mass
The weighted average mass of atoms of an element in a naturally occurring sample
alpha decay
Disintegration of a nucleus, with the emission of a helium nucleus
element
A substance in which all the atoms have the same number of protons
half-life
The time it takes for the decay of half the atoms in a sample
chain reaction
Process in which one initial reaction triggers a growing number of subsequent reactions
nucleons
Collective term for nuclear protons and neutrons
isotopes
Forms of atoms having the same number of protons but differing in number of neutrons
mass defect
The decrease in mass during a nuclear reaction
gamma decay
Disintegration of a nucleus, with the emission of a high-energy photon
elementary particle
Do not exist outside of the nucleus
John Dalton
English chemist and physicist who formulated atomic theory and the law of partial pressures
Who developed the atomic theory?
Categories: Atomic Physics