Chapter 29 Nuclear Physics

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atomic number, Z
equals the number of protons in the nucleus
neutron number, N
equals the number of neutrons in thee nucleus
Mass Number, A
equals the number of nucleons in the nucleus
isotope
a variant of an element that has the same Z value, but different N and A values
density
all nuclei have nearly the same
nuclear force
an attractive force that acts between all nuclear particels
N=Z
light atoms are stable when
N>Z
heavy nuclei are more stable if
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elements with more than — protons are not stable
binding energy
the total energy of the bound system (the nucleus) is less than the combined energy of the separated nucleons
radioactivity
the spontaneous emission of radiation
positron
a particle similar to an electron in all respects except it has a positive e
decay rate
the number of decays per second
half-life
the time it takes for half of a given number of radioactive nuclei to decay
spontaneous decay
when one element changes into another
neutrino
0 electric charge, mass smaller than an electron, spin of 1/2, weak interaction with matter
natural radioactivity
unstabel nuclei found in nature
artificial radioactivity
nuclei produced in the laboratory through nuclear reactions
nuclear reaction
change the structure of nuclei by bombarding them with energetic particles
exothermic reactions
release energy, +Q
endothermic reaction
absorb energy -Q
threshold energy
the minimum value of the kinetic energy of the incoming particle
somatic damage
readiation damage to any cells excpet reproductive cells
genetic radiation
affects only gametes
Categories: Atomic Physics