Chapter 30 : Nuclear Physics

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Atomic number
Z, of an atom is the number of protons. (Nuclear charge= Ze
Atomic Mass Unit
1.66 X 10^-27 Kg (u)
Mass number
(A) number of neutrons and protons. Nuclear mass= A (u)
Nuclide
nucleus of an isotope.
Strong nuclear force
also called strong force, acts between protons and neutrons that are close together, as they are in a nucleus. (binds the nucleus together)
Nucleons
both neutrons and protons.
Binding energy
energy equivalent to the mass defect.
Mass defect
difference between the sum of the masses of the individual nucleons and the actual mass.
Radioactive
materials that emit a kind of radiation.
Alpha decay
process of emission of an alpha particle from a nucleus.
Beta Decay
occurs when a neutron is changed to a proton within the nucleus. (B)
Gamma Decay
a redistribution of the energy within the nucleus.
Nuclear reaction
occurs whenever the energy or number of neutrons or protons in a nucleus changes.
Half-life
the time required for half of the atoms in any given quantity of a radioactive isotope to decay.
Activity
the decay rate, or number of decays per second, of a radioactive substance.
Fission
a division of a nucleus into 2 or more fragments.
Chain reaction
continual process of repeated fission reactions caused by the release of neutrons from previous fission reactions.
Fusion
nuclei with small masses combine to form a nucleus with a larger mass.
Quarks
protons, neutrons, and pions are made up of a family of particles.
Leptons
electrons and neutrons belong to this family.
Force carriers
family of elementary particles (gauge bosons)
Standard model
model of building blocks of matter.
Pair production
conversion of energy into a matter-antimatter pair of particles.
Weak Nuclear Force
existence of beta decay indicates there must be another interaction acting on the nucleus.
Categories: Atomic Physics