Chapter 30 : Nuclear Physics
Z, of an atom is the number of protons. (Nuclear charge= Ze
Atomic Mass Unit
1.66 X 10^-27 Kg (u)
(A) number of neutrons and protons. Nuclear mass= A (u)
nucleus of an isotope.
Strong nuclear force
also called strong force, acts between protons and neutrons that are close together, as they are in a nucleus. (binds the nucleus together)
both neutrons and protons.
energy equivalent to the mass defect.
difference between the sum of the masses of the individual nucleons and the actual mass.
materials that emit a kind of radiation.
process of emission of an alpha particle from a nucleus.
occurs when a neutron is changed to a proton within the nucleus. (B)
a redistribution of the energy within the nucleus.
occurs whenever the energy or number of neutrons or protons in a nucleus changes.
the time required for half of the atoms in any given quantity of a radioactive isotope to decay.
the decay rate, or number of decays per second, of a radioactive substance.
a division of a nucleus into 2 or more fragments.
continual process of repeated fission reactions caused by the release of neutrons from previous fission reactions.
nuclei with small masses combine to form a nucleus with a larger mass.
protons, neutrons, and pions are made up of a family of particles.
electrons and neutrons belong to this family.
family of elementary particles (gauge bosons)
model of building blocks of matter.
conversion of energy into a matter-antimatter pair of particles.
Weak Nuclear Force
existence of beta decay indicates there must be another interaction acting on the nucleus.