Chapter 4: Atomic Structure

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Democritus
Democritus was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe. Democritus was born in Abdera, Thrace, around 460 BC, although some thought it was 490 BC
John Dalton
John Dalton FRS was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is best known for proposing the modern atomic theory and for his research into colour blindness, sometimes referred to as Daltonism in his honour
J.J. Thompson
Joseph John Thomson OM PRS was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle
Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, FRS was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics
Chadwick
Sir James Chadwick, CH, FRS was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
Proton
A proton is a subatomic particle, with a positive electric charge of +1e elementary charge and mass slightly less than that of a neutron
isotope
variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom
nucleus
the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.
electron
a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.
ion
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
neutron
a subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric charge, present in all atomic nuclei except those of ordinary hydrogen.
atomic mass
the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.
Categories: Atomic Physics