Honors Physics: Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics

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atomic number
number of protons in an atom’s nucleus
atomic mass unit
unit of mass, u, that is equal to 1.66*10^-27 kg
atomic mass
mass of an atom in amu’s or u’s
mass number
sum of neutrons and protons in a nucleus
nuclide
nucleus of an isotope
strong nuclear force
attractive force that binds nucleus together; has the same strength between the protons and protons, protons and neutrons, and neutrons and neutrons
binding energy
energy equivalent of mass defect: always negative
radioactive
materials that undergo radioactive decay and emit penetrating rays
alpha decay
radioactive decay where alpha particles are emitted from the nucleus
beta decay
radioactive decay where a neutron is changed into a proton in nucleus and beta particle and antineutrino are emitted
gamma decay
radioactive decay where there’s redistribution of energy in the nucleus without change in atom’s mass or charge
half-life
time required for half of the atoms in a radioactive isotope to decay
activity
number of decays per second in a radioactive substance
fission
a nucleus is divided in two or more fragments, neutrons and energy are released
fusion
nuclei with small masses combined into one big nucleus and energy is released
chain reaction
repeated fission reactions caused by release of neutrons from previous fission reactions
isotope
each of differing forms of same atom with different masses but same chemical properties
element
smallest amount of matter that retains chemical properties, pure substance
proton
positively charged pieces of the nucleus
neutron
neutrally charged pieces of the nucleus
electron
negitivly charged pieces of the nucleus
compound
elements joined in a chemical bond
Categories: Atomic Physics