Nuclear physics

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Strong nuclear force
A very strong but short ranged force that’s holds atomic nuclei together. Primarily attractive
Electromagnetic force
Causes repulsion/attraction between charges and magnets. Long ranged, but weaker than string nuclear force
Weak nuclear force
Responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions. Very short range, and weaker than electromagnetic force
Gravitational force
Weakest of the 4 forces but very long ranged. Acts between any two objects with mass and strength depends on the mass of the objects
Aloha radiation
Consists of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, has relatively large mass, can be shielded with paper
Beta radiation
Consists of either an electron or positron, has no mass, can be shielded with a block of wood or heavy clothing
Gamma radiation
Consists of a photon (energy), has no mass, no charge, and requires thick lead or concrete to shield
Mass equivalence
E= energy (joules)
M= mass
C= speed of light (m/s)
What is e=mc2?
Nuclear fusion
When 2 small nuclei are combined to create 1 larger atom. Energy is RELEASED
Nuclear fission
Half-life
The time it takes for approximately half of a radioactive sample to undergo radioactive decay
Radioactivity
When an unstable nucleus emits a particle or energy in order to become more stable
Decay
The process in which an unstable nucleus emits a particle or energy to become more stable, and sometimes transforms into a new substance (alpha, beta, or gamma)
Electron
Extremely small, negatively charged, subatomic particle. Found outside the nucleus of an atom
Proton
Positively charged, found in the nucleus of an atom, determined to have a mass of 1
Neutron
Neutrally charged, found in the nucleus. Works to stabilize the nucleus and prevent protons from repelling and breaking the nucleus apart
Atomic structure
Made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus with electrons outside in the electron cloud
Emission spectrum
A pattern consisting of stripes of various colors due to electromagnetic radiation emitted when electrons transition from a HIGH to LOW energy state. Every element has a unique ________.
Weak nuclear force
Nuclear force responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions
Strong nuclear force –> electromagnetic nuclear force –> weak nuclear force –> gravitational
What order from strongest to weakest are the 4 fundamental forces
Wavelengths
Photons
As different elements have different gaps between energy levels, different elements will have different _______ of ______ given out and this different emission spectrums
Electron
Particle that makes up an atom with no mass
Alpha beta and gamma
What are the three types of radiation?
Alpha
Least energetic type of radiation and can be stopped or shielded by a sheet of paper
Beta
Transforms either a neutron into a proton or vice versa in the nucleus. Shielded by heavy wood or clothing
Gamma
No change in atomic mass or mass number
Categories: Atomic Physics