Nuclear Physics Unit Review

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have a positive charge
protons
have a neutral charge and are found in the nucleus
neurtrons
have a negative charge and are found outside the nucleus
electrons
the area of highest probability for finding an electron
orbitals
the particles which comprise the nucleus, ie protons and neutrons
nucleons
the force that is responsible for keeping the nucleus from falling apart
strong nuclear force
considered to have produced the first modern atomic theory
Dalton
credited with discovering the electron
Thomson
discovered the charge of an electron
Millikin
received the Nobel prize for Discovery for the atomic nucleus
Rutherford
received the Nobel prize for Discovery of the neutron
Chadwick
credited with creating the solar system model of the atom which stated that electrons exist in defined orbits around the nucleus
Bohr
Planck
considered the Father of Quantum Mechanics
responsible for the Uncertainty Principal that states that you can know the velocity or position of an electronic but never both
responsible for the Uncertainty Principal that stat
Heisenberg
Schrodinger
particles that travel only at the speed of light and whose energy is related to their frequency
photon
the smallest particles of an element and are the building blocks of matter
atoms
atomic number which represents the number of protons
Every element is defined by it’s…
forms of the same element that have different masses die to different number of neutrons
forms of the same element that have different masses due to different number of neutrons
radioactive
some atoms are…. due to their nuclei being unstable
transmutation
many radioactive elements undergo… through a gain or loss of protons to become a different element
results in the effectivelywith of an alpha particle from a radioactive nuclei
results in the ejection of an alpha particle from a radioactive nuclei
2 and 4
as a result of alpha decay, the atomic number of the radioactive nucleus decreased by…and the mass decreases by…
consists of a helium nuclei and are ejected from a nucleus during radioactive decay
Alpha particles
high died electrons released from certain nuclei
high speed electrons released from certain nuclei
during….a neutron decays into a proton and ejected an electron from the nucleus
during….a neutron decays into a petition and ejected an electron from the nucleus
increases: unchanged
the atomic number of an atom undergoing beta decay… by one while the mass is…
positron emission
during…a proton decays into a neutron plus a positron
decreases: unchanged
the atomic number of an atom undergoing positron emission…by one while the mass is…
positron
an antimatter electron is known as a
electron capture
during…the nucleus captures an electron converting a proton into a neutron
decreases: unchanged
the atomic number of an atom undergoing electron capture…by one while the mass is…
produces a penetrating form of electromagnetic radiation
radioactive decay
has the same size bu opposite charges compared to their normal matter counterparts
has the same size but opposite charges compared to their normal matter counterparts
stable
nuclei that have low energy are more…than those with high energy
the combining of lighter nuclei into heavier nuclei accompanied by the release of energy
fusion
the splitting of a large nucleus into two or more smaller nuclei
fission
self-sustaining nuclear reation
self-sustaining nuclear reaction
reactions provide energy for stars as well as production of all elements heavier than hydrogen
thermonuclear fusion
the amount of fissionable material required to initiate a chain reaction
critical mass
is released when protons and neutrons join to form a nucleus
energy
is used to determine the age of a dead organism
carbon-14 dating
such as gamma and X-rays, is dangerous because it can cause electrons to be removed from target molecules
ionizing radiation
Categories: Atomic Physics