Abnormal psychology

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Psychological disorder
Harmful dysfunction in which behaviors are maladaptive, unjustifiable, disturbing, and atypical
4 characteristics of abnormal behavior
1) maladaptive
2) unjustifiable
3) disturbing
4) atypical
Maladaptive
Destructive to oneself or other ps
Unjustifiable
Without a rational basis
Disturbing
Troublesome to others
Atypical
So different that it violates the norm
Medical model
Concept that mental diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and cured
Criticism: focuses exclusively on nature and almost never on nurture(experience/environment)
Bio-psycho-social model
Perspective that assumes biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
DSM-V
(Diagnostic and statistic manual of mental disorders)
APA’s widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
What does the DSM-V do?
-predicts future course of disorder
-assist in the diagnosis of a patient
-provides a springboard for research
Generalized anxiety disorder
Persistent excessive and unrealistic worry about everyday things unrelated to a specific event
Panic disorder
Sudden and repeated attacks of fear that last for several minutes
Phobias
Disruptive, irrational fears of objects or situations disabled to overwhelmed fear
Social anxiety disorder
Strong fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed by common things
OCD
Mind is flooded with involuntary thoughts or in which an individual feels compelled to repeat a behavior over and over again
Obsession- unreasonable idea. Compulsion- repetitive behavior
Body dysmorphic disorder
A body image disorder characterized by persistent intrusive preoccupations with an imagined or slight defect in ones appearance
Posttraumatic stress disorder
Intense and persistent feelings of anxiety and helplessness caused by a physical or psychological traumatic event
EX: war, death, rape
Mood disorders
Significant and chronic disruption in mood
Major depressive disorder
A person, for no reason, experiences at least 2 weeks of depressed mood
*suicide IS a symptom
Persistent depressive disorder
Depressed mood that occurs for most of the day for at least 2 years
*suicide is NOT a symptom
Major depression with seasonal patterns
The onset and remission of major depressive episodes at
different seasons throughout the year
Major depression with postpartum onset
Clinical depression that can affect women after child birth
Bipolar disorder
Severe high and low mood swings
Manic episode
Distinct period of at least 1 week where there is an abnormal or irritable mood
Schizophrenic disorder
Disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions/behaviors
Positive symptoms
Presence of inappropriate behaviors
Hallucinations(Positive)
False perceptions, perceive things that are not there
Delusions (postitive)
False beliefs
Disorganized speech aka word salad
(Positive)
A confused or unintelligible mixture of seemingly random words and phrases
Negative symptoms
Absence of appropriate behaviors
Flat affect (negative)
Servers reduction in emotional expressiveness
-show no emotions
Catatonia (negative)
Characterized largely by variations in voluntary moments
Excitement: rapid movement
Stupor: little activity or speech
Somatoform disorders
Characterized by physical symptoms that take bodily form without apparent physical cause
Illness anxiety disorder
Constantly obsessed with health because you think something is wrong with you but nothing is wrong
Conversion disorder
Show psychological stress in a psychical way
(Starts as mental health problem and converts to psychical problem)
Dissociative disorder
Sense of self has become separated from their memories, thoughts, or feelings
Dissociative amnesia
Inability to recall autobiographal info
(Partial or total loss of Important info)
Dissociative amnesia with fugue
Temporarily lose their sense of identity and impulsively travel or wander
Dissociative identity disorder
Individuals exhibit two or more personalities in addition to their own
-usually originates from childhood traumatic events
*** video
Dissociative disorder causes
BIO- Neurological predisposition
PSYCHO- repression
SOCIAL- victims of trauma often report feeling detached from surroundings
Personality disorders
Rigid and lasting behavior patterns that disrupt social functioning
CLUSTER A characteristics
Odd, stange thinking/ behavior
CLUSTER B characteristics
Dramatically, overly emotional thinking/ behavior
Antisocial (B)
-disregard for others
-persistent lying or stealing
-aggressive, often violent behavior
-disregard the safety of others
Borderline (B)
-impulsive and risky behavior
-volatile relationships
-unstable mood
-suicidal behavior
-fear of being alone
Histrionic (B)
-constantly seeking attention
-emotional
-sensitivity
-unstable mood
-concern with physical appearance
Narcissistic (B)
-believing that you’re better than others
-fantasizing about power
-exaggerating your achievements
-expecting praise
-failure to recognize others’ success
CLUSTER C characteristics
Anxious, fearful, depressed thinking/behavior
Categories: Abnormal Psychology