Abnormal Psychology

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Psychopathology
The scientific study of psychological disorders
Psychological Disorder
a dysfunction that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected
What are the four D’s of Abnormality and what do they mean?
1) Dysfunction- breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning
2) Distress- problems for self and others (individual is extremely upset)
3) Deviance- unusualness/ context or culture societal violation
4) Dangerousness (ONCE CONSIDERED DANGEROUS, YOU CAN BE COMMITTED)
What is one big thing that defines abnormality?
Culture
There is no sharp distinction between abnormal and normal. Each factor rests on a _______
Continuum (some are extremely abnormal and others are not as abnormal)
Prototype
“typical” profile of a disorder

-A patient may have only some symptoms of the disorder and still meet the criteria for the disorder because those symptoms are close to this

What are the three major categories that make up the study and discussion of psychological disorders?
1) clinical description
– distinguish significant disfunction from common human experience
– Describe prevalence, onset, course, prognosis
2) Causation
– what contributes to the development of psychopathology

3) Treatment and Outcome

Etiology
study of origins, has to do with why a disorder begins and includes biological, psychological and social dimensions of a disorder
Describe Scientist-Practitioners
– adoption of scientific methods to learn more about psychological disorders

-Everything is based on Science

-Find what works and use it

Clinical Description
Details of the combination of BEHAVIORS, THOUGHTS, and FEELINGS of an individual that make up a particular disorder
Course
Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time
Prognosis
Predicted development of a disorder over time
What are the three major models that have guided us in viewing abnormal behavior (Etiology/Causation)
1) Supernatural Tradition
2) Biological Model
3) Psychological Model
Supernatural Model
1) Evil spirits
-exorcism, abusive treatment, trephination (drill hole in head)

2) Affliction from the gods (doomed from beginning)

3) Witchcraft

Mass hysteria
demonstrates the phenomenon of emotion contagion, in which the experience of an emotion seems to spread to those around us (aka MOB PSYCHOLOGY)
Who coined the word hysteria
Hippocrates

*what is now identified as a somatoform disorder (no physical cause can be found)

Describe Hippocrates’ greatest accomplishment
FIRST PERSON TO MOVE PAST SPIRIT ASPECT AND TOWARD BIOLOGICAL ASPECT

**linked abnormality with brain chemical imbalances and foreshadowed modern views

Who was John P. Grey
“Champion” of the biological tradition who believed the causes of insanity were always physical and mental patients should be treated as if they were physically ill
Who was Emil Kraepelin?
(BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE) he was one of the first to distinguish among various psychological disorders, seeing that each may have different age of onset, different symptoms, and different causes
Categories: Abnormal Psychology