Abnormal Psychology

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What is a substance (as it pertains to ‘substance abuse’)?
is any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effects- it changes perception, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
What is meant by substance intoxication?
behavioral and psychological changes that occur as a result of the physiological effects of the substance on the CNS.
What is meant by substance abuse?
when a persons recurrent use of a substance results in significant harmful consequences.
What is meant by substance dependence?
drug addiction-A person is physiologically dependent and shows either withdrawal or tolerance
What is meant by Tolerance?
when a person experiences less effect from a drug and needs more and more of it in order to achieve intoxication.
What is meant by substance withdrawal?
experience of physiological and behavioral symptoms due to the cessation or reduction of substance abuse.
What constitutes binge drinking?
is defines as consuming five or more drinks within a couple of hours.
What are delirium tremens (DTs)?
oDelirium Treatments (DT): the third stage or withdrawal, Auditory, visual, and tactile hallucinations occur. The person also may develop bizarre, terrifying delusions, such as the belief that monsters are attacking. He/She may sleep little and may become agitated and disoriented
•DT treatments can be fatal in aprox. 10% of cases. Can occur due to hypothermia or the collapse of the peripheral vascular system.
•These symptoms are more common among people who drink large amounts in a single sitting and have existing medical illness.
What are the long term effects of alcohol misuse?
oAlcohol Misuse: can effect on several systems of the body, including the stomach, esophagus, pancreas, and liver.
•Common medical condition is: low-grade hypertension
•Alcohol-induced persisting amnesic disorder: permanent cognitive disorder cause by the damage in the central nervous system.
•Wernicke’s encephalopathy: mental confusion, disorientation and coma.
•Korsakoff’s Syndrome: memory loss of recent events and difficulty recalling distant ones.
•Alcohol-induced dementia: loss of intellectual abilities, including memory and abstract thinking.
What is the difference between substance abuse and substance dependence?
-Abuse is continuing to use even when health and well-being
-Dependence is needing more to achieve high
What are synergy?
a result of using a combination of drugs. The result is antagonistic if the effects of one or more of the drugs are reduced or canceled out, additive when the result is a sum of the effects of the separate drugs , or supra-additive when the result of the combination is greater than a sum of the separate drugs. A good example of supra- additive synergy is the ;lethal potential that results when relatively small amounts of alcohol and barbiturates are taken together.
What are physiological dependence?
This state occurs when a drug that has been used for some time alters the user’s physiological functions in such a way as to necessitate continued use of the drug in order to prevent withdrawal symptoms. (ex: use of heroin, nicotine, caffeine)
What are habituation?
This refers to dependence on a drug because of a strong desire to replicate the psychological state produced by the drug and/or from indirect reinforcement of psychological needs, such as oral needs and relief of depression.
Betty Ford:
alcoholism and prescription drugs.
Categories: Abnormal Psychology