Abnormal Psychology Ch 14 (Barlow) – Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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Specific Learning Disorders
Difficulties learning and using academic skills, as indicated by the presence of at least on of the following symptoms that have persisted for at least 6 months, despite interventions (read symptoms in notes)
Autism Spectrum Disorder-Social Communication
Persistent deficit in social communication and social interaction across deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviors, and in developing and maintaining relationships appropriate to the developmental level
Autism Spectrum Disorder-Restricted/Repetitive Behaviors
Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities manifested by at least 2-stereotyped or repetitive speech, excessive adherence to routines, highly restricted interests, hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input
Intellectual Disability
Formerly known as mental retardation, characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior
Neurodevelopmental disorders
neurologically based disorders that are revealed in a clinically significant way during a child’s developing years
attention-defcit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by Inattention and/or Hyperactivity and impulsivity
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Diagnostic Criteria – INATTENTION
1. Inattention: Six (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities:
* Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities
* Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
* Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
* Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace
* Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
* Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort
* Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities
* Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
* Is often forgetful in daily activities
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Diagnostic Criteria – HYPERACTIVITY AND IMPULSIVITY
2. Hyperactivity and impulsivity: Six (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities:
Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet or squirms in seat
Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected
Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is inappropriate
Often unable to play or engage in leisure activities quietly
Is often “on the go,” acting as if “driven by a motor”
Often talks excessively
Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed
Often has difficulty waiting his or her turn
Often interrupts or intrudes on others
B. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms present prior to age 12 years
C. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are present in two or more settings
D. Clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, academic, or occupational functioning
E. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder and are not better explained by another mental disorder
Specify whether:
Combined presentation
Predominantly inattentive presentation
Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation
copy number variants
genes that are deleted as a result of mutation; these deletions may play a role in the development of ADHD and other disorders
childhood-onset speech fluency disorder (stuttering)
disturbance in the fluency and time patterning of speech (for example, sound and syllable repetitions or prolongations)
language disorder
expressive language disorder: problems with getting their meaning or message across to others
receptive language disorder: understanding the message coming from others
Tourette’s disorder
developmental disorder featuring multiple dysfunctional motor and vocal tics
Rett disorder
progressive neurodevelopmental disorder featuring constant hand-wringing, intellectual disability, and impaired motor skills
childhood disintegrative disorder
pervasive developmental disorder involving severe regression in language, adaptive behavior, and motor skills after a 2- to 4- year period of normal development
pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specifed
wide-ranging, significant, and long-lasting dysfunctions that appear before the age of 18
joint attention
attention shared by two persons toward an object after one person has indicated interest in the object to the other person; this social interaction is limited or absent in people with autism spectrum disorder
prosody
vocal characteristics such as tone and stress; people with autism spectrum disorder often have trouble recognizing and interpreting these vocal cues
naturalistic teaching strategies
instructional techniques that are used with children having neurodevelopmental disorders and that move away from traditional desk instruction toward more natural social interactions
phenylketonuria (PKU)
recessive disorder involving the inability to break down a food chemical whose buildup causes intellectual disability, seizures, and behavior problems. PKU can be detected by infant screening and prevented by a specialized diet
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
X-linked disorder characterized by intellectual disability, signs of cerebral palsy, and self-injurious behavior
Down syndrome
type of intellectual disability caused by a chromosomal aberration (chromosome 21) and involving characteristic physical appearance. Sometimes known as trisomy 21.
amniocentesis
prenatal medical procedure that allows the detection of abnormalities (for example, Down syndrome) in the developing fetus. It involves removal and analysis of amniotic fluid from the mother.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
a genetic test conducted during early pregnancy that samples cells found in the placenta (chorionic villi) and assesses possible genetic or chromosomal problems in the fetus
fragile X syndrome
pattern of abnormality caused by a defect in the X chromosome resulting in intellectual disability, learning problems, and unusual physical characteristics
cultural-familial intellectual disability
mild intellectual disability that may be caused largely by environmental influences
Categories: Abnormal Psychology