Abnormal Psychology Ch. 4, 5, 6

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Def: Theory
A set of propositions meant to explain a class of observations. Usu. intended to explain cause-effect relationships.
Def: Hypotheses
Expectations about what should occur if a theory is true.
3 elements of Case Study
1) To provide a rich description of a clinical phenomenon, 2) To disprove an allegedly universal hypothesis, and 3) To generate hypotheses that can be tested through controlled research.
Research Methods in Psychopathology: Case Study
Desc: Collection of detailed biographical info.; Pro: Excellent for hypotheses, Provide info. about novel cases/procedures, Disconfirm a believed universal relationship; Con: no causal evidence, bias of observer.
Research Methods in Psychopathology: Correlation
Desc: Study of the relationship between two or more variables; measured as they exist in nature; Pro: Used due to ethical issues, Often in epidemiologist to study prevalence, incidence, & risk factors, Often in behav. genetics to study heritability of mental disorder; Con: No causality because of directionality and third-variable.
Research Methods in Psychopathology: Experiment
Desc: Includes independent/dependent variables, pref. 1+ control, & random assign.; Pro: Can determine causality, Often used in treatment, Use in analogue studies of risk for mental illness; Con: Single-case common but limited external validity.
Def: Correlation Coefficient
Denoted by r, measures both magnitude and direction from -1.00 to +1.00
Epidemiological research focuses on 3 features of a disorder:
1) Prevalence, 2) Incidence, and 3) Risk factors
GAD Treatments:
Cognitive therapy & Applied relaxation
Social Phobia Treatments:
Exposure, Cognitive behavioral group therapy, Systematic desensitization
Simple Phobia Treatments:
Exposure, Guided mastery, Systematic desensitization
OCD Treatments:
Exposure and response prevention, Cognitive therapy
Agoraphobia Treatments:
Exposure, CBT
Panic Treatment:
PTSD Treatments:
Prolonged exposure, Cognitive processing therapy
Bulimia Treatments:
CBT, Interpersonal psychotherapy
Depression Treatments:
Cognitive, Problem-solving, Self-management/self-control, & Behavior therapies, Interpersonal psychoterapy
Anorexia Nervosa Treatment:
Family-based treatment
Schizophrenia Treatments:
Social skills training, Social learning/Token economy programs, Assertive community treatment, Supported employment programs, Family psychoeducation, Behavioral family therapy, Cognitive remediation, CBT
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Treatment:
Community reinforcement approach
Relationship Distress Treatments:
Behavioral couples therapy, Emotion-focused therapy, Insight-oriented couples therapy
Sexual Dysfunctions Treatment:
Partner-assisted sexual skills training
Borderline Personality Disorder Treatment:
Dialectical behavior therapy
Def: Dissemination
The process of facilitating adoption of efficacious treatments in the community.
Def: Meta-analysis
A quantitative method of analyzing the results of a set of studies on a topic, by standardizing the results.
Proposed DSM-5 Criteria for Specific Phobia
* Marked and disproportionate fear consistently triggered by specific objects or situations
* The object of situation is avoided or else endured with intense anxiety
* Symptoms persist for at least 6 months
Symptoms for Anxiety Disorders:
* must interfere with important areas of functioning or cause marked distress
* are not caused by drug or a medical condition
* the fears and anxieties are distinct from the symptoms of another anxiety disorder
Two broad types of Mood Disorders:
1) Involves only depressive symptoms
2) Involves manic symptoms (bipolar disorders)
DSM-IV-TR depressive disorders:
1) Major depressive disorder (MDD)
2) Dysthymia
DSM-5 adds three new depressive disorders:
1) Mixed anxiety/depressive disorder
2) Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
3) Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5 Bipolar Disorders:
1) Bipolar I disorder
2) Bipolar II disorder
3) Cyclothymia
Proposed DSM-5 Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder
Sad mood OR loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia)
* Symptoms are present nearly every day, most of the day, for at least 2 weeks
* Not due to normal bereavement (present in DSM-IV-TR but removed in DSM-5)
PLUS four of the following symptoms:
* Sleeping too much or too little
* Psychomotor retardation or agitation
* Poor appetite and weight loss, or increased appetite and weight gain
* Loss of energy
* Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt
* Difficulty concentrating, thinking, or making decisions
* Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
* Symptoms tend to dissipate over time
* Once depression occurs, future episodes likely – Average number of episodes is 4
Subclinical depression:
* Sadness plus 3 other symptoms for 10 days
* Significant impairments in functioning even though full diagnostic criteria are not met
Categories: Abnormal Psychology