Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1

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abnormal behavior
conduct that is inconsistent with the individual’s developmental, cultural, and societal norms, and that creates emotional distress or interferes with daily functioning
animal magnetism
force that Mesmer believed flowed within the body and, when impeded, resulted in disease
behavioral genetics
field of study that explores the role of genes and environment in the transmission of behavioral traits
behaviorism
theory that the only appropriate objects of scientific study are behaviors that can be observed and measured directly
biological scarring
process by which years of living with a disorder causes changes in the brain
biopsychosocial perspective
idea that biological, psychological, and social factors probably contribute to the development of abnormal behavior and that different factors are important for different individuals
classical conditioning
a form of conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response
culture
shared behavioral patterns and lifestyles that differentiate one group of people from another
culture-bound syndrome
abnormal behaviors that are specific to a particular location or group
dementia praecox
original name for schizophrenia coined by Kraeplin to highlight its pervasive disturbances of perceptual and cognitive faculties and its early life onset and to distinguish it from the dementia associated with old age
developmental trajectory
idea that common symptoms of a disorder may vary depending on a person’s age
diathesis-stress model of abnormal behavior
idea that psychological disorders may have a biological or psychological predisposition that lies dormant until environmental stress occurs and the combination produces abnormal behavior
dimensional approach
approach to understanding behavior that considers it from a quantitative perspective, not a qualitative perspective
ego psychology
form of psychodynamic theory that focuses on conscious motivations and healthy forms of human functioning
emotional contagion
automatic mimicry and synchronization of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements of one person by another
goodness of fit
idea that behavior is problematic or not problematic depending on the environment in which it occurs
mass hysteria
situation in which a group of people share and sometimes even act upon a belief that is not based in fact
neuron
nerve cell found throughout the body, including the brain
neuroscience
study of the structure and function of the nervous system and the interaction of that system and behavior
neurotransmitter
chemical substances that are released into the synapse and transmit information from one neuron to another
operant conditioning
form of learning in which behavior is acquired or changed by the events that happen afterward
phenomenology
school of thought that holds that one’s subjective perception of the world is more important than the world in actuality
placebo effect
effect in which symptoms are diminished or eliminated not because of any specific treatment but because the patient believes that the treatment is effective
psychoanalysis
theory of abnormal behavior originated by Sigmund Freud that was based on the belief that many aspects of behavior were controlled by unconscious innate biological urges that existed from infancy
punishment
application of something painful or the removal of something positive
reinforcement
contingent event that strengthens the response that precedes it
schizophrenia
severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganization in thought, perception, and behavior
scientist-practitioner model
approach to psychological disorders based on the concept that when providing treatment to people with psychological disorders, the psychologist relies on the findings of research and in turn, when conducting research, the psychologist investigates topics that help to guide and improve psychological care
sociocultural model
idea that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces
synapse
space between neurons
talking cure
therapy in the form of discussion of psychological distress with a trained professional, leading to the elimination of distressing symptoms
trephination
process in which a circular instrument was used to cut away sections of the skull, possibly in an attempt to release demons from the brain
vicarious conditioning
distinct type of learning in which the person need not actually do the behavior in order to acquire it
viral infection theory
theory that during the prenatal period or shortly after birth, viral infections could cause some psychological disorders
Categories: Abnormal Psychology