Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1
(Psychological Disorder): A psychological dysfunction associated with distress and/or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or a culturally expected response.
A breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavoral functioning.
Statistical Definition of Abnormal Behavior
Deviation from Average (not typical)
Distress Definition of Abnormal Behavior
Societal Norms Definition of Abnormal Behavior
It is not a culturally expected response given the situation or context or it represents a violation of society’s rules
Impairment in Functioning Definition of Abnormal Behavior
Inability to meet family, occupational, and social obligations
What terms refer to the same phenomenon, Psychological Disorder
Abnormal Behavior, Psychological Abnormality, Mental Disorder, Mental Illness, Psychopathology
Scientific study of psychological disorders
What terms are often used inappropriately as synonyms for Psychological Disorder
Clinical and Counseling Psychologists
have either the Ph.D., Psy.D., or Ed.D. degree; follow a course of graduate-level study, lasting approximately 5 years, that prepares them to conduct research into the causes and treatment of psychological disorders and to diagnose, assess, and treat these disorders.
have the M.D. degree, can prescribe medication; investigate the nature and causes fo psychological disorders, often the biological point of veiw; make diagnosis; and offer treatments.
Psychiatric Social Workers
have the M.S.W. degree, social workers treat disorders, often concentrating on family problems associated with them.
have a variety of degrees including the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees; specialize in the care and treatment of patients with psychological disorders, usually in hospitals as part of a treatment term.
A mental health professional who takes a scientific approach to their clinical work. This can take three forms.
1. Keeping up with the latest scientific developments in the field of psychopathology. 2. Evaluating assessment and treatment procedures to make sure they are working. 3. Conducting research
Three forms of approach to clinical work
This is the problem that is the reason a person comes to a clinic. (broad description ie: depression)
The unique combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelins of an individual that make up a given psychological disorder. This includes the symptoms and the history of the problem. (How long have you had these symptoms, have things gotten worse, does your work suffer)
The number of people in the population as a whole who havbe a particular psychological disorder at any given time.
The numver of new cases of the disorder within a given time frame. For example, how many newly diagnosed cases are there per year. (shows if this is becoming less of more of a problem)
The particular symptom pattern demonstrated by a psychological disorder over time. Examples include chtonic, episodic, and time limited
symptoms last a long time (bipolar disorder, schizophrenia)
symptoms come and go or get worse then better as time goes by (depression, mood disorders)
symptoms will improve on their own with the passage of time (common cold)
symptoms appear suddenly in a well defined period of time. (usually a life event happens to start symptoms)
symptoms develop gradually over a longer period of time.
the predicted future course of a psychological disorder. (What happens to the typical client with or without treatment)
In addition to being a term for psychological disorder, it is the field concerned with the scientific study of psychological disorders
refers to the cause or causes of a psychological disorder, study of origins, why a disorder begins (what causes it). It almost always involves multiple factors including bioloigical, psychological, and social factors
Procedures used to eliminate or alleviate psychological disorders
how well treatments work
Three Basic Models of Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior
Supernatural Model, Biological Model, Psychological Model
proposes that psychological disorders are caused by agents outside of our bodies or social environment. These agents could be divinities, demons, spirits, magnetic fields, or the moon and planets.
Examples of Supernatural Explanations of abnormal behavior
Mass Hysteria, Astrology, Dualism
proposes that the causes of both normal and abnormal behavior are biological. Psychological disorders (mental illnesses) are caused by disease states such as infection, genetic abnormality, and physical dysfunction.
Major Influences of the Biological Model
Hippocrates/Galen: Green/Roman physicians who developed a humoral theory of mental and physical disorders. Disorders are caused by an imbalance of four humors or bodily fluids
The Cause of Syphillis: General Paresis: a disorder characterized by delusions of persecution, delusions of grandeur, gradual physical and intellectual decline, paralysis and death is linked to long-term infection by the microorganism that causes syphilis
The Development of Effective Biological Treatments
Insulin Shock Therapy, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), Neuroleptics (antipsychotics), Benzodiazephines (antianxiety drugs or anziolytics), Antidepressants
proposes that the causes of psychological disorders are psychological, social, and cultural. That is, experimential factors.
Major influences of Psychological Model
Moral therapy, Psychoanalytic Theory, Humanistic Theory
psychosocial approach to treating mental disorders that stressed treating patients normally as possible in a setting that encouraged and reinforced normal social interaction. Pinel: originated this model, Tuke: followed his lead in England, Rush: brought treatment to US, Mann: introduced at Pennsylvania Hospital
Id, Ego, Superego ,Stages of Psychosexual Development:
emphasizes the positive, optimistic side of human beings.
takes a more scientific, objective approach to studying psychopathology, with a major emphasis placed on learning. Other names: cognitice-behavioral, social learning model.
type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it elicits that response. Ring a bell-salivation in dogs
technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation.
array of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioral and cognitive sciencem as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems.
responses are modified by their consequences (reinforcers, punishers, extinction, and so on)
consequences for behavior that strengthen it or increase its frequency.
development of a new response by reinforcing successfully more similar versions of that response.
a condition in which an individual suffers from an inability to tell right from wrong or control their behavior.
large scale outbreaks of strange behavior (St. vitus Dance or Tarantism)
the belief that heabenly bodies interact with personal magnetic fields to influence behavior.
a term dericed from philosophy. Most often associated with Rene Descartes. It refers to a basic assumption that the mind and body are separate entities governed by different sets of rules and principles. This philosophical splitting of the mind and body led to two important models of abnormal behavior: the Biological and Psychological models (nature vs. nurture)
source of strong secual and aggressive feelings/energies. It opperates according to the pleasure principle
ensures we act realistically (reality principle).
influences us to behave in accord with the principles of morality instilled in us by out parents and culture
Stages of Psychosexual Development
series of stages through which all people pass. They have a profound impact on later deveopment.
inborn drive to reach one’s potential.
look at self accurately, therapist takes a passive role.
Unconditional positive regard:
not going to judge. Empathy: understands how a person feels.
person belives therapist is sincere.