Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1: History of Abnormal Psychology

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Abnormal Psychology
Subfield of psychology that addresses the causes and progression of psychological disorders; psychopathology.
Psychological Disorder
A pattern of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that causes significant personal distress, significant impairment in daily life, and or significant risk of harm, any of which is unusual for the context and culture in which it arises.
Degree
It is the __________ of impairment that indicates a psychological disorder.
Psychosis
An impaired ability to perceive reality to the extent that normal functioning is difficult or not possible. Two symptoms are hallucinations and delusions.
Paranoid or Persecutory Delusions
Other people or organizations are after the person.
Delusional Jealousy
His or her intimate partner is dating or interested in another person.
Grandiose Delusions
He or she is more powerful, knowledgeable, or influential than is true in reality and or that he or she is a different person, such as the president or Jesus.
Somatic Delusions
His or her body is defective or functioning abnormally.
Hallucinations
Sensations that are so vivid that the perceived objects or events seem real, although they are not. They can occur in any of the five sense.
Delusions
Persistent false beliefs that are held despite evidence that the beliefs are incorrect or exaggerate reality.
Culture
The shared norms and values of a society that are explicitly conveyed to its members by example and through the use of reward and punishment.
Supernatural Forces
Healers and common folk believed that the mentally ill were possessed by spirits or demons, and possession was often seen as punishment for some religious, moral, or other transgression.
Ancient Greeks and Romans
Believed that mental illness arouse through an imbalance of four humors, black bile, blood, yellow bile, and phlegm.
Hippocrates
Suggested that the brain is responsible for mental activity, and that mental illness arises from abnormalities in the brain.
Asylums
Institutions to house and care for people who are afflicted with mental illness.
Moral Treatment
Treatment of the mentally ill that involved providing an environment in which people with mental illness were treated with kindness and respect and functioned as a part of a community.
Psychoanalytic Theory
The theory that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are a result of conscious and unconscious forces continually interacting in the mind.
Id
According to Freud, the seat of sexual and aggressive drivers, as well as of the desire for immediate gratification of physical and psychological needs.
Superego
According to Freud, the seat of the conscience, which works to impose morality.
Pleasure Principle
Seeking gratification of needs without regard for the consequences.
Ego
According to Freud, the psychic structure that is charged with mediating between the id’s demands for immediate gratification and the superego’s high standard of morality, as well as the constraints of external reality.
Psychosexual Stages
According to Freud, the sequence of 5 distinct stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) through which children proceed from infancy to adulthood; each stage has a key task that must be completed successfully for healthy psychological development.
Neurosis
According to psychoanalytic theory, a pattern of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that expresses an unresolved conflict between the ego and the id or between the ego and the superego.
Defense Mechanisms
Unconscious processes that work to transform psychological conflict in order to prevent unacceptable thoughts and feelings from reaching consciousness.
Repression
Unintentionally keeping conflict-inducing thoughts or feelings out of conscious awareness.
Denial
Not acknowledging the conflict-inducing thoughts or feelings to oneself and others.
Rationalization
Justifying the conflict-inducing thoughts, feelings, or behaviors with explanations.
Projection
Ascribing the conflict-inducing thoughts or feelings onto others.
Reaction Formation
Transforming the conflict-inducing thoughts or feelings into their opposite.
Sublimation
Channeling the conflict-inducing thoughts or feelings into less-threatening behaviors.
Psychodynamic Therapy
Treatment based on psychodynamic theory.
Mental Processes
Internal operations that underlie cognitive and emotional functions (such as perception, memory, and guilt feelings) and most human behavior
Mental Contents
Specific material that is stored in the mind and operated on by mental processes.
Humanistic Psychology
Focuses on free will, innate goodness, creativity, and the self.
Carl Rogers
Proposed that symptoms of distress and mental illness arise when a potential route to personal growth (self-actualization) is blocked.
Client-Centered Therapy
Developed by Rogers to help people reduce incongruences and help them create solutions to their problems by releasing their real selves.
Behaviorism
An approach to psychology that focuses on understanding directly observable behaviors in order to understand mental illness and other psychological phenomena. Maladaptive behavior can result from learning.
Pavlovian Conditioning
Association between a reflexive behavior and conditions that occur immediately prior to it, an association created by a process.
Cognitive Psychology
Area of psychology that studies mental processes and contents starting from the analogy of information processing by a computer.
Secure Attachment
Those who become upset when their mother leaves but quickly calm down upon her return.
Resistant/Anxious Attachment
Those who become angry when their mother leaves and remain angry upon her return, sometimes even hitting her.
Avoidant Attachment
Those who had no change in their emotions based on mother’s presence or absence.
Disorganized Attachment
Those who exhibit a combination of resistant and avoidant styles and also appear confused or fearful with their mother.
Diathesis-Stress Model
A model that rests on the idea that a psychological disorder is triggered when a person with a predisposition–a diathesis–for the particular disorder experiences an environmental even that causes significant stress.
Bio (Biopsychosocial)
Genetics, the structure and function of the brain, and the function of other bodily systems.
Psycho (biopsychosocial)
Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
Social (biopsychosocial)
Social interactions and the environment in which they occur.
Biopsychosocial Approach
The view that a psychological disorder arises from the combined influences of three types of factors–biological, psychological, and social.
Neuropsychosocial Approach
The view that psychological arises from the combined influences of neurological, psychological, and social factors–which affect and are affected by one another through feedback loops.
Categories: Abnormal Psychology