Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 1 – Introduction and HIstorical Overview

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Anal Stage (2nd Psycho-sexual Stage)
Occurs during the second year of life when the anus is considered the principal erogenous zone
Analytical Psychology (Carl Jung)
a variation of psychoanalysis that focuses less on biological drives and more on factors such as self-fulfillment , the collective unconscious, and religious symbols
Asylums
institutions for the mentally ill created in the 15th century
Behavior Therapy
A type of therapy that assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors
Behaviorism
the school of psychology originally associated with John B. Watson, who proposed that observable behavior, not consciousness, is the proper subject matter of psychology; Contemporary behaviorists do use mediational concepts, provided they are firmly anchored to observables
Cathartic Method (Introduced by Breur, developed by Freud)
A therapeutic procedure to relieve emotional suffering by whereby a patient recalls and relives an earlier emotional catastrophe and re experiences the tension and unhappiness
Classical Conditioning (Pavlonian Conditioning)
Form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (UCS) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (UCR). After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes a (CS) and evokes the same or similar response, now called the CR
Clinical Psychologist
An individual who has earned a Ph.D. degree in psychology or a Psy D. and whose training has included an internship in a mental hospital or clinic
Collective Unconscious
Jung’s concept that every human being carries within the wisdom, ideas, and striving of those who have come before
Counseling Psychologist
A doctoral level mental health professional whose training is similar that of a clinical psychologist, though usually with less emphasis on research and serious psychopathology
Defense Mechanism
In psychoanalytic theory, reality distorting strategies unconsciously adopted to protect the ego from anxiety
Demonology
The doctrine that a person’s abnormal behavior is caused by an autonomous evil spirit
Ego
In psychoanalytic theory, the predominatly conscious part of the personality, responsible for decision making and for dealing with reality
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A treatment that produces a convulsion by passing electric current through the brain; despite public concerns about this treatment, it can be useful in alleviating profound depression
Exorcism
The casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or tormenting
Extinction
The elimination of classically conditioned response by the omission of the unconditioned stimulus; In operant conditioning, the elimination of the conditioned response by the omission of reinforcement
Fixation
In psychoanalytic theory, the arrest of psychosexual development at a particular stage through too much or too little gratification at that stage
Free Association
A psychoanalytic procedure in which the analysand is encouraged to give free reign to his or her thoughts and feelings, verbalizing whatever comes into the mind without monitoring the content; The assumption is that over time, repressed material will come forth for examination by bot h analysand and psychoanalyst
General Paresis
infection of the central nervous system by the spirochete Treponemal pallidum, which destroys the brain tissue; marked by eye disturbances, temors, and disordered speech as well as severe intellectual deterioration and psychotic symptoms
Genital Stage
the final psychosexual stage, reached in adulthood, in which heterosexual interests predominate
Harmful Dysfunction
proposed definition of mental disorder that contains both a value judgment (harmful) and a putatively objective scientific component (dysfunction)
Id
that part of the personality present at birth, comprising all the energy of the psyche and expressed as biological urges that strive continually for gratification
Individual Psychology (Alfred Adler)
a variation of Freud’s psychoanalysis; focusing less on biological drives and more on such factors as people’s conscious beliefs and goals for self-betterment
Interpretation (psychoanalysis)
a key procedure in which the psychoanalyst points out to that analysand where resistance exists and what certain dreams and verbalization reveal about impulses repressed in the unconscious; more generally, any statement by a therapist that construes the client’s problem in a new way
Latency Period (psychoanalytics)
the years between ages 6 and 12 during which id impulses play a minor role in motivation
Law of Effect
A principle of learning that holds that behavior is acquired by virtue of its consequences
Libido
Freudian term for the life-integrating instinct or force of the id; sometimes equated with sexual drive
Marriage and Family Therapist
A mental health professional who specializes in treating couples and families and how these relationships impact mental health; training can be at the masters or Ph.D level, and some M.S.W. programs offer training in marriage and family therapy
Mental Disorder
a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or patterns; a number of key features including distress, disability, or impaired functioning,violation of social norms, and dysfunction
Modeling
Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others or teaching by demonstrating and providing opportunities for imitation
Moral Treatment (Phillipe Pinel)
A therapeutic regiment whereby mentally ill patients were released from their restraints and were treated with compassion and dignity rather than with contempt and denigration
Negative Reinforcement
The strengthening tendency to exhibit desired behavior by rewarding responses in that situation with removal of an aversive stimulus
Operant Conditioning
The acquisition or elimination of a response as a function of the environment contingencies of reinforcement and punishment
Oral Stage
the first psychosexual stage, which extends into the seccond year, during it the mouth is the principal erogenous zone
Phallic Stage
the third psychosexual stage, extending from ages 3 to 5 or 6 during which maximal gratification is obtained from general stimulation
Pleasure Principle
the demanding manner by which the id operates, seeking immediate gratification of its needs…
Positive Reinforcement
The strengthening of a tendency to exhibit desired behavior by rewarding responses in that situation with a desired reward
Psyche
the totality of the id, ego, and superego, including both conscious and unconscious components
Psychiatric Nurse
A nurse, typically with a bachelor’s degree, who receives specialized training in mental illness; A nurse practitioner may prescribe psychiatric medications
Psychiatrist
A physician who has taken specialized postdoctoral training called a residency, in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical disorders
Psychoactive Medications
Prescribed chemical compounds having a psychological effect that alters mood or though process
Psychoanalysis
Primarily the therapy proceudures pioneered by Freud, entailing free association, dream analysis, and working through the transference neurosis,; More recently the term has come to encompass the numerous variations on basic Freudian therapy
Psychoanalytic Theory
Theory originating with Freud that psychopathology results from unconscious conflicts in the individual
Psychopathology
The filed concerned with the nature and development of mental disorders…
Psychotherapy
A primarily verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to reduce distress and the achieve greater life satisfaction
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (Albert Ellis)
A cognitive restructuring behavior therapy based on the assumption that much disordered behavior is routed in absolutist, unrealistic demands and goals such as I must be universally loved
Reality Principle (psychoanalysis)
the manner in which the go delays gratification and otherwise deals with the environment in a planed, rational fashion
Social Worker
a mental health professional who holds a master of social work (M.S.W) Degree
Stigma
the pernicious beliefs and attitudes held by a society, ascribed to groups considered deviant in some manner, such as people with mental illness
Superego
the part of the personality that acts as the conscience and refects society’s moral standards as learned from parents and teachers
Systematic Desensitization
A major behavior therapy procedure that that has a fearful person , while deeply relaxed, imagine a series of progressively more fearsome situations, such that fear is dispelled as a response incompatible with relaxation; useful for treating psychological problems in which anxiety is the principal difficulty
Transference
The venting of analysand’s emotions, either positive or negative, by treating psychoanalyst as the symbolic representative of someone important in the past
Unconscious
A state of unawareness without sensation or thought; the part of the personality, in particular the id impulses or energy, of which the ego is unaware
Categories: Abnormal Psychology