Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1 Notes

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Psychology Disorder (Abnormal Behavior)
a psychological dysfunction associated with distress and/or impairment in functioning that is not a typical (common) or a culturally expected response
Psychological Dysfunction
a breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning
Statistical Definition of Abnormal Behavior
Deviation from Average (not typical)
Distress Definition of Abnormal Behavior
personal suffering
Societal Norms Definition of Abnormal Behavior
is not a culturally expected response given the situation or context or it represents a violation of society’s rules
Impairment in Functioning Definition of Abnormal Behavior
Inability to meet family, occupational, and social obligations
Terms Synonymous with Psychological Disorder
-abnormal behavior
-psychological abnormality
-mental disorder
-mental illness
-psychopathology
Insanity
a condition in which an individual suffers from an inability to tell right from wrong or control their behavior.
Clinical and Counseling Psychologists
have either the Ph. D., Psy. D., or Ed. D. degree
Psychiatrists
have the M.D. degree (give prescriptions)
Psychiatric Social Workers
have the M.S.W. degree
Psychiatric Nurses
have a variety of degrees including the M.S. and Ph. D. degrees
Scientist- Practitioner (Boulder Model)
a mental health professional who takes a scientific approad to their clinical work.
Three forms of Boulder Model (Scientist-Practitioner)
1. Keeping up with the latest scientific developments in the field of psychopathology
2. Evaluating assessment and treatment procedures to make sure they are working
3. Conducting research
Presenting complaint
this is the problem that is the reason a person comes to a clinic
Clinical Description
the unique combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a given psychological disorder. This includes the symptoms and the history of the problem.
Prevalence
the number of people in the population as a whole who have a particular psychological disorder at any given time
Incidence
the number of new cases of the disorder within a given time frame. For example, how many newly diagnosed cases are there per year.
Course
the particular symptom pattern demonstrated by a psychological disorder over time
Chronic course
symptoms that last a long time
Episodic course
symptoms come and go or get worse then better as time goes by
Time-limited course
symptoms will improve on their own with the passage of time
Acute onset
symptoms appear suddenly in a well defined period of time
Insidious onset
symptoms develop gradually over a longer period fo time
Prognosis
the predicted future course of a psychological disorder, what happens to the typical client with or without treatment
Psychopathology
in addition to being a term for psychological disorder, it is the field concerned with the scientific study of psychological disorders
Etiology
refers to the cause or causes of a psychological disorder, it almost always involves multiple factors including biological, psychological, and social factors
Treatments
procedures used to eliminate or alleviate psychological disorders
Outcomes
how well the treatments work
Supernatural Model
model that proposes that psychological disorders are caused by agents outside of our bodies or social environment. These agents could be divinities, demons, spirits, magnetic fields, or the moon and planets.
Examples of supernatural explanations of abnormal behavior
Mass Hysteria – large scale outbreaks of strange behavior
Astrology
the belief that heavenly bodies interact with personal magnetic fields to influence behavior
Dualism
a term derived from philosophy. Most often associated with Rene Descartes. It refers to a basic assumption that the mind and body are separate entities governed by different sets of rules and principles.
Dualism led to 2 important models (perspectives on) of abnormal behavior:
1. Biological model
2. Psychological model
Biological Model
proposes that the causes of both normal and abnormal behavior are biological. Psychological disorders (mental illnesses) are caused by disease states such as infection, genetic abnormality, and physical dysfunction.
Hippocrates/Galen
Greek/Roman physicians who developed a humoral theory of mental and physical disorders. Disorders are caused by an imbalance of four humors or bodily fluids.
The cause of syphilis
a disorder characterized by delusions of persecution, delusions of grandeur, gradual physical and intellectual decline, paralysis, and death, is linked to long-term infection by the microorganism that causes syphilis
The Development of Effective Biological Treatments
Insulin Shock Therapy
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Neuroleptics
Benzodiazepines (antianxiety drugs or anxiolytics)
Antidepressants
Psychological Model
model that proposes that the causes of psychological disorders are psychological, social, and cultural. That is experiential factors.
Moral Therapy
psychosocial approach to treating mental disorders that stressed treating parents normally as possible in a setting that encouraged and reinforced normal social interaction.
Structure of the Mind
Id, Ego, Superego
Id
source of strong sexual and aggressive feelings/energies. It operates according to the pleasure principle.
Ego
ensures we act realistically (reality principle). This is the rational part of the mind.
Superego
influences us to behave in accord with the principles of morality instilled in us by our parents and culture.
Stages of Psychosexual Development
series of stages through which all people pass. They have a profound impact on later development.
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
Humanistic Theory
emphasizes the positive, optimistic side of human beings
Behavioral Model
takes a more scientific, objective approach to studying psychopathology, with a major emphasis placed on learning
Categories: Abnormal Psychology