Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 2 – Current Paradigms in Psychopathology

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Agonist
A drug that stimulates receptors normally specific to a particular neurotransmitter
Allele
Any of the various forms in which a particular gene is found
Amygdala
A subcortical structure of the temporal lobe involved in attention to emotionally salient stimuli and memory of emotionally relevant events
Antagonist
A drug that dampens the effect of a neurotransmitter on its receptors; for example, many dopamine antagonists block dopamine receptors
Anterior Cingulate
In the subcortical structure region of the brain, the anterior portion of the cingluate gyrus, streathcing about the corpus callosum
Attachment Theory
The type or style of an infant’s attachment to his or her caregiveres can set the stage for psychological health or problems later in development
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
The division of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions; innervates endocrine glands, smooth muscle, and heart muscle; and initiates the physiological changes that are part of the expression of emotion…
Behavioral Activation (BA) Therapy
Clinical approach to depression that seeks to increase participation in positively reinforcing activities…
Brain Stem
The part of the brain connecting the spinal cord with the cerebrum; contains the pons and medulla oblongata and functions as a neural relay station
Behavior Genetics
The study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable to differences in genetic makeup…
Behavior Medicine
An interdisciplinary field concerned with integrating knowledge from medicine and behavioral science to understand health and illness and to prevent as well as treat psychophysiological disorders and other illnesses in which a person’s psyche plays a role…
Cardiovascular Disease
Medical problems involving the heart and the blood circulation system, such as hypertension or coronary heart disease…
Cerebellum
an area of the hindbrain concerned with balance, posture, and motor coordination
Cognition
The process of knowing; the thinking, judging, reasoning, and planning activities of the human mind; Behavior is now often explained as depending on these processes…
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
Behavior therapy that incorporates theory and research on cognitive processes such as thoughts, perceptions, judgments, self-statements, and tacit assumptions; a blend of both the cognitive and behavioral paradigm
Cognitive Behavior Paradigm
General view that people can best be understood by studying how they perceive and structure their experiences and how this influences behavior
Cognitive Restructuring
Any behavior therapy procedure that attempts to alter the manner in which a client thinks about life so that he or she changes overt behavior and emotions…
Copy Number Variation (CNV)
Refers to variation in gene structure involving copy number changes in a defined chromosomal region; could be in the form of a deletion where a copy is deleted or an addition (duplication) where an extra copy is added
Corpus Callosum
The large band of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
Cortisol
A stress hormone secreted by adrenal cortices; helps the body prepare to face threats…
Diathesis
Predisposition toward a disease or abnormality…
Diathesis – Stress
As applied by psychopathology, a view that assumes that individuals predisposed toward a particular mental disorder will be particularly affected by stress and will then manifest abnormal behavior…
Dopamine
Central nervous system neurotransmitter, a catecholamine that is also a precursor or nor-epinephrine and apparently figures in schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease…
Emotion
the expression, experience, and physiology that guide responses to problems and challenges in the environment
Epigenetics
The study of changes in gene expression that are caused by something other than changes in the DNA (gene) sequence or structure, such as DNA methylation
Exposure
Real-life ( in vivo) or imaginal confrontation of a feared object or situation, especially as a component of systematic desensitization
Frontal Lobe
The anterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the central sulcus; active in reasoning and other higher mental processes
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Inhibitory neurotransmitter that may be involved in the anxiety disorders
Gene
The smallest portion of DNA within a choromsome that functions as a piece of function hereditary information
Gene Expression
The switching on and off of the reading (transcription and translation) of genes into their products (usually proteins) and thus their associated phenotypes
Gene-environment Interaction
The influence of genetics on an individuals sensitivity or reaction to an environmental event
Genetic Paradigm
The approach to human behavior that focuses on both heritability of traits and complex interactions between genes and environment
constitution
An individual’s unobservable, genetic consitution, that is, the totality of genes present in the cells of an individual; often applied to the genes contributing to a single trait
Glial Cells
Cells in the brain that are not neurons. They support and protect neurons/
Gray Matter
The neural tissue – made up largely of nerve cell bodies – that constitutes the cortex covering the cerebral hemisphere, the nuclei in lower brain areas, columns of the spinal cord, and the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system
Health Psychology
A branch of psychology dealing with the role of psychological factors in health and illness
Heritability
The extent to which variability in a particular behavior/disorder within a population can be attributed to genetic factors
Hippocampus
In the subcortical region of the brain, the long, tubelike structure that stretches from the septal area into the temporal lobe
HPA Axis
The neroendorcine connections among the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex, central to the body’s response to stress
Hypothalamus
In the subcortical region of the brain, the structure that regulates many visceral processes, including metabolism, temperature, perpiration, blood pressure, sleeping, and appetite
In Vivo
As applied in psychology, taking place in a real life situation
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
A short-term, here and now focused psychological treatment initially developed for depression and influenced by the psychodynamic emphasis on relationships
Molecular Genetics
Studies that seek to determine the components of a trait that are heritable by identifying relevant genes and their function
Nerve Impulse
A wave of depolarization that propagates along the neuron and causes the release of neurotransmitter; action potential
Neuron
A single nerve cell
Neuroscience Paradigm
A broad theoretical view that holds that mental disorders are caused in part by some aberrant process directed by the brain
Neurotransmitters
Chemical substances important in transferring a nerve impulse from one neuron to another, for example, serotonin and norepinephrine
Nonshared (unique) Environment
Factors distinct among family members, such as relationships with friends or specific experiences unique to a person
Nor-epinephrine
A catecholamine neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, disturbances in the tracts of which apparently figure in depression and mania; It is also a sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter , a hormone released in addition to epinephrine and similar in action, and a strong vasoconstrictor
Object Relations Theory
Variant of psychoanalytic theory that focuses on the way children internalize (introject) images of the people who are important to them (their parents), such that these internalized images (object representations) become part of the go and influence how the person reacts in the real world
Occipital Lobe
The posterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere, situated behind the parietal lobe and above the temporal lobes; responsible for reception and analysis of visual information and for some visual memory
Paradigm
A set of basic assumptions that outlines the universe of scientific inquiry; specifying both the concepts regard as legitimate and the methods to be used in collecting and interpreting data
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that is involved with maintenance; controls many of the internal organs and is active primarily when the organism is not aroused
Parietal Lobe
The middle division of each cerebral hemisphere , situated behind the central sulcus and above the lateral sulcus; the receiving center for sensations of the skin and of bodily positions
Phenotype
The totality of physical characteristics and behavioral traits of an individual or a particular trait exhibited by an individual, the product of interactions between genetics and the environment over the course of development
Polygenic
As applied to psychopathology or any other trait, caused by multiple genes contributing their effects typically during multiple stages of development
Polymorphism
Any specific difference in DNA sequence that exists within a population
Prefrontal Cortex
The region of the frontal lobe of the brain that helps maintain an image of threats and rewards faced, as well as maintain focus on and plan relevant to those threats and rewards
Pruning
In neural development, the selective loss of synaptic connections, especially the fine-tuning of brain regions devoted to sensory processing
Reciprocal Gene-Environment Interaction
The genetic predisposition for an individual to seek out certain environments that increase the risk of developing a particular disorder
Reuptake
Cellular process by which released neurotransmitters are taken back into the presynaptic cell terminating their present postsynaptic effect but making them available for subsequent modulation of nerve impulse transmission
Schema
A mental structure for organizing information about the world
Second Messengers
Intracellular molecules whose levels are increased by sustained activity of neurotransmitters, for example, receptors, and which affect the resting states of ion channels or regulate gene expression of receptor molecules, thus modulating the cell’s sensitivity to neurotransmitter
Septal Area
In the subcortical region of the brain, the area anterior to the thalamus
Serotonin
A neurotransmitter of the central nervous system whose disturbances apparently figure in depression
Serotonin Transporter Gene
A particular gene critical to the gene-environment interactions that apparently contribute to the development of depression
Shared Environment
Factors that family members have in common, such as income level, childrearing practices, and parental marital status and quality
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
A variation in gene sequence; Specifically, differences between people in a single nucleotide (A, T, G, or C) in the DNA sequence of a particular gene
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that acts on bodily systems – for example, contracting the blood vessels, reducing activity of the intestines, and increasing the heartbeat – to prepare the organism for exertion, emotional stress, or extreme cold
Synapse
Small gap between the two neurons where the nerve signal passes electrically or chemically from the axon of the first to the dendrites, cell body, or axon of the second
Temporal Lobe
A large region of each cerebral hemisphere situated below the lateral sulcus and in front of the occipital lobe; contains primary auditory and general association areas
Thalamus
A major brain relay station consisting of two egg-shaped lobes; receives impulses from all sensory areas except the olfactory and transmits them to the cerebrum for higher processsing
Time-Out
An operant conditioning procedure in which, after bad behavior, the person is temporarily removed from a setting where reinforcers can be obtained and placed in a less desirable setting, for example, in a boring room
Transcription
In genetics, the first step in gene expression; A section of DNA sequence is transcribed to RNA; a sequence of DNA synthesizes a copy of RNA
Ventricles
Cavities deep within the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid that connect to the spinal cord
White Matter
Neural tissue, particularly of the brain and spinal cord, consisting of tracts or bundles of myelinated (sheathed) nerve fibers
Categories: Abnormal Psychology