Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 4, 5, 6, & 7

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anxiety
mood state characterized by marked negative affect and bodily symptoms of tension in which a person apprehensively anticipations future danger or misfortune. Anxiety may involve feelings, behaviors, and physiological symptoms.
fear
emotion of an immediate alarm reaction to present danger or life-threatening emergencies.
panic
sudden, overwhelming fright or terror.
panic attack
abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by several physical symptoms, such as dizziness or heart palpitations.
behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
brain circuit in the limbic system that responds to threat signals by inhibiting activity and causing anxiety.
fight/flight system (FFS)
brain circuit in animals that when stimulated causes an immediate alarm-and-escape response resembling human panic.
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
anxiety disorder characterized by intense, uncontrollable, unfocused, chronic, and continuous worry that is distressing and unproductive, accompanied by physical symptoms such as tenseness, irritability, and restlessness.
panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA)
fear and avoidance of situations the person believes might induce a dreaded panic attack.
agoraphobia
anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult.
panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD)
panic attacks experienced without development of agoraphobia.
panic control treatment (PCT)
cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic attacks, involving gradual exposure to feared somatic sensations and modification of perceptions and attitudes about them.
specific phobia
unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation that markedly interferes with daily life functioning.
blood-injury-injection phobia
unreasonable fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection. Victims experience fainting and a drop in blood pressure.
situational phobia
anxiety involving enclosed places or public transportation.
natural environment phobia
fear of situations or events in nature, especially heights, storms, or water.
animal phobia
unreasonable, enduring fear of animals or insects that usually develops early in life.
separation anxiety disorder
excessive, enduring fear in some children that harm will come to them or their parents while they are apart.
social phobia
extreme, enduring, irrational fear and avoidance of social or performance situations.
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
enduring, distressing emotional disorder that follows exposure to a severe helplessness, or fear, inducing threat. The victim re-experiences the trauma, avoids stimuli associated with it, and develops a numbing or responsiveness and an increased vigilance and arousal.
acute stress disorder
severe reaction immediately following a terrifying event, often including amnesia about the event, emotional numbing, and derealization. Many victims later develop post-traumatic stress disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder involving unwanted, persistent, intrusive thoughts and impulses thoughts and impulses, as well as repetitive actions intended to suppress them.
obsessions
recurrent intrusive thought or impulse the client seeks to suppress or neutralize while recognizing it is not imposed by outside forces.
compulsions
repetitive, ritualistic, time-consuming behavior or mental act a person feels driven to perform.
somatoform disorder
pathological concern of individuals with the appearance or functioning of their bodies, usually in the absence of any identifiable medical condition.
dissociative disorder
disorder in which individuals feel detached from themselves or their surroundings and feel, reality, experience, and identity may disintegrate.
hypochodriasis
somatoform disorder involving severe anxiety over belief in having a disease process without any evident physical cause.
somatization disorder
somatoform disorder involving extreme an long-lasting focus on multiple physical symptoms for which no medical cause is evident.
pain disorder
somatoform disorder featuring true pain but for which psychological factors play an important role in onset, severity, or maintenance.
conversion disorder
physical malfunctioning, such as blindness or paralysis, suggesting neurological impairment but with no organic pathology to account for it.
malingering
deliberate faking of a physical or psychological disorder motivated by gain.
factitious disorder
nonexistent physical or psychological disorder deliberately faked for no apparent gain except, possibly, sympathy and attention.
body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)
somatoform disorder featuring a disruptive preoccupation with some imagined defect in appearance.
derealization
situation in which the individual loses a sense of the reality of the external world.
depersonalization disorder
dissociative disorder in which feelings of depersonalization are so severe they dominate the individual’s life and prevent normal functioning.
dissociative amnesia
dissociative disorder featuring the inability to recall personal information; usually of a stressful or traumatic nature.
generalized amnesia
memory loss.
dissociative fugue
dissociative disorder featuring sudden, unexpected travel away from home, along with an inability to recall the past, sometimes with assumption of a new identity.
dissociative trance disorder (DTD)
altered state of consciousness in which people firmly believe they are possessed by spirits; considered a disorder only when there is distress and dysfunction.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
disorder in which as many as 100 personalities or fragments of personalities coexist within one body and mind.
alters
shorthand term for alter ego, one of the different personalities or identities in DID.
mood disorders
one of a group of disorders involving severe and enduring disturbances in emotionality ranging from elation to severe depression.
major depressive episode
most common and severe experience of depression, including feelings of worthlessness, disturbances in bodily activities such as sleep, loss of interest, and inability to experience pleasure, persisting at least 2 weeks.
mania
period of abnormally excessive elation or euphoria associated with some mood disorders.
hypomanic episode
less severe and less disruptive version of a manic episode that is one of the criteria for several mood disorders.
mixed manic episode or dysphoric manic episode
condition in which the individual experiences both elation and depression or anxiety at the same time.
major depressive disorder, single or recurrent episode
mood disorder involving one major depressive episode; mood disorder involving multiple (separated by at least 2 months without depression) major depressive episodes.
dysthymic disorder
mood disorder involving persistently depressed mood, with low self-esteem, withdrawal, pessimism, or despair, present for at least 2 years, with no absence of symptoms for more than 2 months.
double depression
severe mood disorder typified by major depressive episodes superimposed over a background or dysthemic disorder.
catalepsy
motor movement disturbance seen in people with some psychosis and mood disorders in which body postures can be sculpted to remain for long periods.
pathological or impacted grief reaction
extreme reaction to the death of a loved one that involves psychotic features, suicidal ideation, or severe loss of weight or energy or that persists more than 2 months.
bipolar II disorder
alternation of major depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes, not full manic episodes.
bipolar I disorder
alternation of major depressive episodes with full manic episodes.
cyclothymic disorder
chronic mood disorder characterized by alternating mood elevation and depression levels that are not as severe as manic or depressive episodes.
Categories: Abnormal Psychology