Abnormal Psychology Chapter 5 & 6

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fear
The central nervous system’s physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one’s well-being.
anxiety
The central nervous system’s physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger.
diathesis-stress model
disorder arises as a result of biological vulnerability + experience that meets the stress threshold
generalized anxiety disorder
A disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities
symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder
restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep problems
(symptoms last at least 6 months)
client-centered therapy
The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing accurately, and conveying genuineness.
basic irrational assumptions
The inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems, according to Albert Ellis
rational-emotive therapy
A cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis that helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder.
benzodiazepines
The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
The neurotransmitter whose low activity has been linked to generalized anxiety disorder.
relaxation training
A treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations.
biofeedback
A technique in which a client is given information about physiological reactions as they occur and learns to control the reactions voluntarily.
electromyograph (EMG)
A device that provides feedback about the level of muscular tension in the body.
phobia
A persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation.
symptoms of phobias
intense fear for at least 6 months, avoidance of feared object or situation, immediate anxiety to exposure, distress that interferes with functioning
specific phobia
A severe and persistent fear of a specific object or situation (other
than agoraphobia and social phobia).
classical conditioning
A process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become tied together in a person’s mind and so produce the same response.
modeling
A process of learning in which a person observes and then imitates others. Also, a therapy approach based on the same principle.
stimulus generalization
A phenomenon in which responses to one stimulus are also produced by similar stimuli.
preparedness
A predisposition to develop certain fears.
exposure treatments
Behavioral treatments in which persons are exposed to the objects or situations they dread.
systematic desensitization
A behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread.
flooding
A treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly and
intensively to a feared object and made to see that it is actually harmless.
social phobia
A severe and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Also known as social anxiety disorder.
social skills training
A therapy approach that helps people learn or improve social skills and assertiveness through role playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors.
panic attacks
Periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak within minutes, and gradually pass
panic disorder
An anxiety disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks.
agoraphobia
An anxiety disorder in which a person is afraid to be in places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or help unavailable if panic-like symptoms were to occur
norepinephrine
A neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to panic disorder and depression
obsession
A persistent thought, idea, impulse, or image that is experienced repeatedly, feels intrusive, and causes anxiety.
compulsion
A repetitive and rigid behavior or mental act that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety.
obsessive-compulsive disorder
A disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a need to perform repetitive and rigid actions, or both.
isolation
An ego defense mechanism in which people unconsciously isolate and disown undesirable and unwanted thoughts, experiencing them as foreign intrusions.
serotonin
A neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders.
post-traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms continue to be experienced long after a traumatic event
Categories: Abnormal Psychology