Abnormal Psychology: Childhood disorders

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DSM 5- Changes to Childhood Disorders
– Integrative disorders, (no more distinct disorders)
– Disruptive Disorder
– Impulse Control
– Conduct Disorder
– Neurodevelopment Disorders
Autism Spectrum
Challenges in studying childhood disorders
– Children are developing and changing rapidly
– children may not communicate directly
– often rely on parent report
– must consider family context
Developmental Psychopathology
– view abnormal behavior within the context of normal development
Externalizing Disorders
– create difficulties for external world, failure to conform to rules or expectations of others
– Types: Conduct, Oppositional, ADHD
Causes of externalizing disorders
– Biological: temperament, Genetics, Neuropsychological abnormalities, food additives and sugar
– Social: Parenting styles, influences of media and peers
– Psychological: Self Control, moral reasoning
Internalizing Disorders
– affect the child’s internal world
– Anxiety
– Depression
Mood Dysregulation Disorder
– New Mood Disorder in DSM 5
– Childhood Disorder (ages 6-18)
– Severe recurrent temper outbursts (3 times a week for at least a year)
– Persistent irritable, angry mood between outburst
– an alternative to diagnosing children with bipolar disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
– persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity that interferes with functioning
– must see symptoms for at least 6 months and a degradation of social academic/occupational activities
– symptoms present before age 12, present in two or more settings
– symptoms cannot occur during course of any other psychotic disorder
-Medication: Stimulant Drugs, Ritalin and Adderal
Conduct Disorder
– persistent pattern of behavior in which basic rights of others or major societal norms are violated
– must meet 3 of 15 criteria in these areas:
– aggression to people or animals
– destruction of property
– deceitfulness or theft
– serious violations of rules
Interventions for Conduct Disorders
– Empathy Building: discrimination another’s emotional state, assume the perspective and role of another, respond emotionally to another
– anger management: attend to internal state, practice adaptive self statement, practice competiing response thing through nonviolent solutions, reward self for nonviolent solutions
Separation Anxiety
– feel extreme anxiety, often panic, whenever they are separated from home or parent
– temper tantrums, cry, or plead to keep their parents from leaving
– fear that they will get lost or that parents will get sick or get into accident
Childhood Depression
– depression in young children
– can be caused by negative life events: losses, major changes, rejection, or on-going abuse
– headaches, stomach pain, irritability, and disinterest in toys and games
Enuresis
– repeated involuntary or in some cases intentionally wetting bed or wetting one’s clothes (5years old)
– may be triggered by stressful events: hospitalization, entrance into school, or family problems (physical or psychological abuse)
Encopresis
– repeated involuntary defecating into one’s clothing
– can be caused by stress, biological factors like constipation, improper toilet training or combination of these factors
– have history of constipation
Autism Spectrum Disorder
– Includes both Autism and Asperger’s Disorders
– symptoms include:
– lack of responsiveness
(low empathy, lack of interest in other people, low empathy)
– Echolalia: language and communication problems (pronoun difficulty) repeat what other person is saying
– limited imaginative or abstract play
– restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior interests or activities
– must be present in early developmental period
Severity Ratings and Specifiers for Autism Spectrum Disorder
– Level 1: requires support
– Level 2: requiring substantial support
-Level 3 requiring very substantial support
– with or without accompanying intellectual impairment
Psychodynamic theory: Refridgerator Parents Bettleheim
– caused by parents who created an unfavorable climate for development and contributed to child’s disorder
– However, rigid, cold, rejecting or disturbed parents have not been proven to cause autism
Genetic Theory for Autism
– the prevalence for autistic among their siblings is much higher than the general populations
– identical twins: 60 % prevalence
Theory of mind: Sally Ann task
– awareness that other people base their behaviors on their own beliefs, intentions, and other mental states, not on the information they have no way of knowing
Example: Sally and Ann play with a marble, Sally puts into box 1 and Ann leaves, but then Sally moves marble into box 2 Ann comes back and is asked where is the marble
– Kids with developmental problems would say Box 2
Behavior Modification: Lovaas
– Method: Long term study with autistic children, 2 groups= treated vs non treated
– Findings: behavioral group did much better in school and scored higher on intelligence tests, able to go to regular school classrooms and gains continued through teenage years
– Implications: behavioral programs are preferred treatment for autistic disorder
Intellectual Disability
– Deficits in intellectual functioning
– must be confirmed by clinical assessment and individualized in stargazed testing
– deficits in adaptive functioning
– onset during developmental period (before 18)
– levels: mild moderate, severe, profound
Organic Causes for Intellectual Disorder
– Chromosomal abnormality: Down Syndrome
– genetic: Fragile X Syndrome, PKU, Prenatal factors: fetal alcohol syndrome
– Cultural-family factors
– Mainstreaming
Categories: Abnormal Psychology