Abnormal Psychology – Childhood Disorders
Common kinds of psychological problems in infants?
Sleep issues, developmental disorders, separation anxiety
Common kinds of psychological problems in toddlers?
Fears, anxiety, behavioral problems, bedwetting, developmental disorders
Common kinds of psychological problems in school aged children?
Fears and anxiety, school difficulties, social problems (bullying), conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder
Common kinds of psychological problems in adolescence?
Physical and sexual changes/disorders, depression, panic disorder, substance abuse, anxiety/mood disorders
Common kinds of psychological problems in young adulthood?
Anxiety and mood disorders, sexual disorders, psychotic disorders (onset in young adulthood)
Common kinds of psychological problems in adulthood?
Full range of disorders not yet covered
Common kinds of psychological problems in older adulthood?
How many children and adolescents in North America experience a diagnosable psychological disorder?
Boys with psychological disorders outnumber girls, even though…
Most of the adult psychological disorders are more common among women
Women are ____ times more likely to experience anxiety or depression than men.
Some childhood disorders such as _____ and ______ are also experienced by adults.
Anxiety and depression
Other childhood disorders such as _______, ________, and ________/_________ usually either disappear or radically change form by adulthood.
Conduct disorder, ADHD, enuresis/encopresis
Some disorders begin at birth or in childhood and persist in stable forms into adult life called
Pervasive developmental disorders and mental retardation
Most children break rules or misbehave, but if they consistently display extreme hostility and defiance, they may qualify for a diagnosis of __________
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Symptoms of ODD
Argue repeatedly with adults
Lose temper, feel anger and resentment
Are disobedient (ignore adult rules and requests)
Display negative behaviors (try to annoy other people or blame others)
____% of children receive this diagnosis
This is more common in _____ than in _____ before puberty but equal in both genders after puberty
Symptoms of Conduct Disorder
Repeatedly violate the basic rights of others
Aggressive, may be physically cruel to people or animals
Deliberately destroy others’ property, skip school, or run away from home
May steal, threaten, harm their victims
Commit crimes such as shoplifting, forgery, breaking into buildings or cars, mugging, and armed robbery
Acts of physical violence may include rape or homicide
What age does Conduct disorder usually begin between?
___% of children (3/4 boys) may qualify for this diagnosis
Children with mild conduct disorder often improve over time, but severe cases can continue into adulthood and develop _______
Antisocial personality disorder or other psychological problems
Usually most children first display a pattern of ____
More than ____ of children with conduct disorder also display ADHD
What are the causes of conduct disorder?
Biological factors, drug abuse, poverty, traumatic events, exposure to violent peers or community violence, troubled parent-child relationships, inadequate parenting, family conflict
How do clinicians treat oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder?
Parent child interaction therapy
Parent management training
Cognitive behavioral intervention
Anger coping and coping power program
Some drug therapy
Parent Child Interaction Therapy
Parents taught to interact positively, set appropriate limits, use “bug in ear,” reinforce children for complying with parental requests, use of time out chair
Parent Management Training
Parents are taught behavioral skills for managing child behavior; how to stop rewarding unwanted behaviors and to reward proper ones
For conduct disorder
Cognitive behavioral intervention
Problem solving skills training
Some drug therapies
Ritalin (stimulant drug that works to reduce aggressive behaviors at home and school)
Prevention may be the greatest hope for dealing with conduct disorder. How?
Prevention programs that begin in the earliest stages of childhood. These programs try to change unfavorable social conditions before a conduct disorder is able to develop
When children ages 8-15 were asked what concerned them most about school, all age groups pointed to _____
Bullying a factor in ____ of school shootings, most often, the shooter was victim of bullying
Children who display ADHD have difficulty attending to tasks or behave over reactively or impulsively
Children who have trouble focusing attention may keep turning from task to task until they run in several directions at once
___% of school children display ADHD, ____% are boys.
ADHD usually persists throughout childhood. Symptoms tend to lessen in adolescence, but ___% continue to have ADHD as adults.
Symptoms of ADHD
At least 6 symptoms of inattention, persisting for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.
At least 6 symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity
Causes of ADHD
Abnormal activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine and abnormalities in the frontal striatal regions of the brain
Linked to high levels of stress and family dysfunctioning
The diagnosis of ADHD may also create what?
Social problems and produce additional symptoms – children who are hyperactive may be viewed negatively by peers and by parents so they may often view themselves negatively as well
How do you assess ADHD?
Observe child’s behavior in several settings (school, home, friends) because symptoms of hyperactivity and inattentiveness must be present across multiple settings in order to meet DSM criteria
Diagnostic interviews, rating scales
How is ADHD treated?
Ritalin (Stimulant drug) has a quieting effect on most children and increases their ability to solve problems and perform academically
Behavioral therapy – parents and children learn to reward attentiveness and self control
Children with this disorder repeatedly urinate or pass feces in their clothes, in bed, or on the floor. They already have reached an age at which they are expected to control these bodily functions, and their symptoms are not caused by physical illness
Repeated involuntary or intentional bed wetting or wetting clothes; must be 5 years old to receive diagnosis
___% of 5 year olds suffer from enuresis. __ to ___% of 10 year olds and __% of 15 year olds
10, 3 to 5, 1
Treatment for enuresis
Bell and pad technique and dry bed training
Bell and pad technique
Classical conditioning approach where a bell and battery are wired to a pad consisting of two metallic foil sheets and the entire thing is placed under the child at bedtime; a single drop of urine sets off the bell, awakening the child; thus the bell (unconditioned stimulus) paired with the sensation of a full bladder (conditioned stimulus) produces the response of waking. Eventually, a full bladder alone awakens the child
Dry bed training
Children are awakened periodically, go to the bathroom and are rewarded; usually effective
Defecating into one’s own clothing
Encopresis usually starts after age 4, affects about __% of 5 years
Encopresis is more common in which gender?
Causes of encopresis?
Biological factors, stress, improper toilet training, or combination of factors. Physical problems are often linked to this disorder
Treatment for encopresis?
Behavioral, medical, and dietary. Family therapy also proves helpful
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Autistic Disorder and Asperger’s Disorder
Steady increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism, at least 1 in ____ children display the disorder; ____% remain severely disabled into adulthood
Symptoms/Characteristics of autism
Lack of responsiveness, low empathy, inability to share attention with others is the central feature of autism. Language and communication problems. Pronominal reversal (of pronouns). Repetitive and rigid behavior.
Symptoms/Characteristics of Asperger’s
Display significant social impairments but maintain appropriate levels of cognitive function and language. They have odd interests, restricted and repetitive behaviors, but have normal intellectual, adaptive, and language skills.
Aspergers is _____ than autism. 1 in ____ people display this disorder; ___% are boys.
More common. 250, 80%
The earlier in life people are treated,
the better chance at being successful
What are the causes of PDD?
Psychological causes? Failure to develop a “theory of mind” (Most children can develop this between 3-5 years of age and can take perspective of another person).
Biological causes? Possible genetic factor in this disorder
Brain scans indicate that children with autism have _____ brain volume and abnormalities in the ______ and reduced activity in the _____ and ____ lobes
increased; brain stem, amygdala; temporal and frontal
How do we treat PDD?
Behavioral therapy – modeling, operant conditioning
Communication Training – sign language
Assessing intelligence, assessing adaptive functioning