Abnormal Psychology (Comer) Chapter 3

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model
a set of assumption and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations. aka paradigm
neuron
nerve cell
synapse
the tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
neurotransmitter
a chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons
receptor
a site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter
biological model
medical perspective. psychological abnormalities are caused by a physical malfunction in the brain. focused on link between brain anatomy and chemistry and abnormal behavior. also genetics and viral infections.
biological treatments
drug therapy, ECT, and psychosurgery
psychotropic medications
drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
psychodynamic model
behavior determined by unsconscious psychological forces interacting with each other because they are dynamic. abnormal behavior results when the forces are in conflict because each one fights to be expressed. deterministic.
theory of psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud. three central forces shape personality, instinctual needs, rational thinking, and moral standards. all interact at unconscious level.
id
instincts/drives. operates on pleasure principles. seeks self gratification. impulsively unrealistic. reflex activity/direct self gratification. primary process thinking.
ego
seeks gratification with reality principle. operates on secondary process thinking – planning the best way to gratify. defense mechanisms to control id impulses and reduce anxiety. caused by id and ego conflict.
superego
interjects parent’s values (morals.) components: ego ideal – standards of perfect conduct, conscience – reminds us about feelings.
fixation
part of you remains in a stage of development. too much/not enough gratification at any of the 5 stages.
ego psychologists
still under psychodynamic. ego is more independent and powerful than Freud gave it credit for. ego grows independently. 2 primary activities: conflict free function and conflict resolving function. best known – Erik Erickson (8 stages of man). all of us strive for ego identity.
objects relations theorists
people are motivated by the need to establish relationships with others. external objects – people with whom we relate. internal objects – our psychological representations of them; emotions & feelings.
self theorists
focus on role of unified personality in defining sense of identity.
psychodynamic treatments
free association, dream interpretation, catharsis (reliving of past repressed feelings).
behavioral model
deterministic. emphasizes observeable behavior and environmental factors that can be measured. focus on how behavior is acquired and maintained over time. developed in labs where conditioning was studied. can produce normal/abnormal behavior.
operant conditioning
a process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is repeated.
modeling
a process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others.
classical conditioning
a process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person’s mind and elicit the same response.
behavioral treatments
systematic desensitization
cognitive model
how people attend to, interpret, and use information. concerned with internal processes, present focused – here and now. maladaptive thinking causes maladaptive behavior. faulty assumptions and attitudes. illogical thinking: overgeneralizing, selective perception, magnification.
cognitive therapies
beck’s cognitive therapy (depression). goal of therapy to help clients recognize and restructure thinking. challenge dysfunctional thoughts, try out new interpretations, and apply new ways of thinking in daily life.
humanistic-existential model
in actuality is two models – combination model. humanists – humans good by nature because of drive towards self-actualization. existentialists – life must be “authentic”, must have individual responsibility.
Roger’s Humanistic Theory & Therapy
humans have basic need for unconditional positive regard ( genuine love). If received, get unconditional self-regard, if not leads to “conditions of worth”.
Roger’s Client Centered Therapy
focus on client, provide unconditional positive regard. be accurate ad genuine in reflection (reflective listening). focus on experiencing “person-hood”.
Gestalt Theory and Therapy
clinicians actively move clients towards self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self discovery exercises.
existential treatment
help clients recognize their freedom so they can live with greater meaning. accept responsibility for their lives.
sociocultural model
abnormal behavior is best understood in the context of society and culture that influence the individual. addresses norms and rules in society. influenced by sociology and anthropology. focus on social labels and roles. look at social supports and network. family structure and communication.
sociocultural treatments
group therapy, family therapy, couple therapy, community treatment.
Categories: Abnormal Psychology