Abnormal Psychology Exam 1: Chapters 1, 2, and 3

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nonmenclature, study of etiology/comorbidity, insurance
why classify abnormality?
suffering, maladaptives, statistical deviancy, violation of the standards of society, social discomfort, irrationality and unpredictibility, dangerousness
indicators of abnormality(study notes for this)
certain forms of psychopathy appear to be highly specific to certain cultures ex. taijin kyofusho, ataque de nervios
cultural factors of abnormality
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
what is the DSM?
stigma, sterotyping, labeling
What are the disadvantages of classifying abnormality?
prevalence- point right now, in the past year, or in life time. Incidence- new things, existing cases exclusive
Epidemiology prevalence and incidence
advantages-detailed and accurate information on specific case
limitations- cannot be generalized to public
case studies advantages and limitations
benefits- cheap, easy to prepare, quick data, easy to repeat, valid
limitations- questions can be misinterpreted, people may be embarrassed to be truthful
self report benefits and limitations
advantages- every day life, easier than experiments, good starting point for research
disadvantages- doesn’t include reasoning, just relationship, unknown 3rd variable
directionality- variable A is causing changes in variable B
3rd variable problems- a 3rd unknown variable is causing changes in the other 2 variables
correlational studies advantages, disadvantages, directionality, 3rd variable problems
requirements- independent variable, dependent variable, randomization
comparison groups- one group given drug, one group given placebo
Experimental method requirements and comparison groups
trephinging involved chipping away a circular section of the skull- stone age.
supernatural perspectives and ancient treatments (trephining)
hippocrates believed that mental disorders had natural causes like physical disorders, emphasized heredity and predisposition, noted head injuries causing sensory or motor disorders as mania, malancholy phrenitis (depression)
doctrine of 4 humors- black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm
hippocrates and doctrine of 4 humors
european- plagued with madness such as tarantism/saint viitus’s dance and lycanthropy, exorcism was popular
china and middle east- not as severe or long lasting as in the west, patients still treated humanely
middle east had first mental hospital in 792 ad in Baghdad
avicenna of persia was cannon of medicine, emphasized humane practices and treatments of mental disorders unheard of in western medicines at the time
dark ages and middle ages- european vs chinese/middle eastern traditions, treatment approaches
johann weyer- german physician who argued that those tortured and killed as witches were actually mentally ill
early asylums- prisons or storage places in which residents lived in filthy conditions and treated cruelly. barbaric treatments
Renaissance- johann weyer, asylums and life in asylums, treatment approaches
moral movement- moral refers to emotional and psychological
philliple pinel- successfully experimented with treating mental patients with kindness
walter freeman- “lobotomy gets them home” 5,074 lobotomies
emil kraepelin- father of modern psychiatry, ground breaking research (rifle firing-alcohol), compendium der psychiatre- dsm forerunner
humanitarian reform/19th-20th century- moral movement, phillipe pinel, walter freeman, emil kraepelin
establishing the link between the brain the mental disorders (syphillis and paresis)
freuds contribution- took 1st seps toward understanding psychological factors in mental disorders, psychoanalytic theory, biology is destiny, catharsis, the unconscious, free association, dream analysis
behaviorism- pavlov (classical) , watson (advances conditioning), skinner (operant), wolpe (systematic desensitization) all led to modern behavioral and cognitive behavioral therapy
development of the psychological basis of mental disorder- freuds contribution, behaviorism
causes and risk factors
etiology
close
proximal timing
far away
distal timing
need to have it but it’s not enough
necessary cause
good enough, everytime
sufficient cause
increase likelihood that outcome will happen
contributory cause
vulnerability
diathesis
protective factors, resilience(ability to overcome stressors)
mitigating factors
when someone tries to convince themself (or another person) to strengthen their beliefs by warning them of the constant threats of them losing their belief. putting them on guard to threats
inoculation effect
some stressors may immunize or enhance subsequent functioning of an individual
steeling effect
tiny space between neurons
synapse
transmits information through the nervous system
neurons
what is released by neurons into the synapse so neurons can communicate. norepinephrine (adreneline) dopamine (pleasure) serotonin (mood) glutamina (schizo) GABA (anxiety)
neurotransmitters
excess production, dysfunction in neurotransmitters deactivation, post synaptic neuron abnormality
neurotransmitter inbalance
absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted
reputake
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and axis. hypothalamus (tells pituitary what to do), pituitary gland(behind eye, master gland) , adrenal gland(by pancreas)
HPA-axis
neurotransmitters, chemical circuits, & hormones are influenced by genes. most polygenic- 1 thing controlled by 2 or more genes
genetic vulnerability (polygenic)
conscious, unconscious, and preconscious. 3 processes in the unconscious- id, ego (middle man), and superego. anxiety arises from conflict between the id, ego and superego. ego to the rescue through defense mechanisms-repression, denial, displacement, rationalization, reaction formation, projection, sublimation
psychodynamic perspectives
occurs in response to real, external threat to a person
objective anxiety
occurs when there is direct conflict between id and ego
neurotic anxiety
caused by conflict between ego and superego (guilt, regret)
moral anxiety
learning provides the central theme of the behavioral approach. classical conditioning-stimulus-stimulus expectancy, extinction. operant conditioning- response-outcome expectancy, reinforcement, punishment. observational learning, generalization, discrimination. effective treatment but doesn’t focus on causes
behavioral perspective
organized framework of seeing things
schema
emphasis on thoughts and information processing. bandura- reinforcement can be internal arising from our thoughts.beck- information is filtered through our schema. (assimilation, cognitive distortions) Impact: influenced contemporary thinking of disorder origins, maintenance, and treatment. widely adopted in treatment of disorders, however may not be better and may even be worse than behavioral treatments
cognitive-behavioral perspective
Categories: Abnormal Psychology