abnormal psychology exam 1-class notes

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psychopathology
formal study of nature and development of abnormal behavior, long history, “why do some eople experience thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are different from what most people experience?”
paradigms
theory used to understand world at a given time, efforts to understand abnormal behavior derive from these theories
emdr
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, treatment of ptsd, compelling to us
biological model
hippocrates, somatogenesis
somatogenesis
origin of disorders come from inside the body, brain problems lead to behavior problems
normative
or, relating to, or based on norms; a set standard of measurement usually derived from the average or median data of a large group
anecdotal
from personal experience (ex: in my experience people recover from depression in about 4 months)
categorical variation
one whose range is countable, belongs in either A or B (ex: male or female)
continuous variation
can take a value, ex: weight-0 to 500 lbs, Variation measured on a continuum rather than in discrete units or categories (eg height in human beings).
mental disorder
personal distress, violation of social norms, disability, dysfunction
distress
severe emotional pain and suffering
disability
inability to complete goals, limits function (ex: unable to work, or be in public places)
violation of social norms
makes others uncomfortable or causes problems, varies by culture and time
dysfunction
harmful, normal function is not occurring, internal process, difficult to observe-we presume it to be present (ex: hippocampus is smaller in depression)
abnormal behavior
a psychological dysfunction assoc with distress or impairment in functioning that is not typical or culturally expected
abnormal behavior-dsm5
disorder occurs within individual, involves clinically significant difficulties in thinking, feeling, behaving, involves dysfunction in processes that support mental functioning, not culturally specific, not a result o social deviance or conflict with society
categorical variables
discrete variable one whose range is countable (ex: gender-female or male)
continuous variables
ex: weight, where is behavior on a scale from normal to abnormal, not categorical
supernatural model
dark ages-1700s, influence of church increased after roman civilization fell, monasteries replaced physicians, demonology, asylums, ergot poisoning
galton
work on inherited mental illness
behavioral genetics
extent to which behavioral differences are due to genetics
eugenics
promotion of enforced sterilization to eliminate undesirable characteristics from a population, many state laws required mentally ill to be sterilized
biological treatments
insulin coma therapy, ect, prefrontal lobotomy
syndrome
cluster of symptoms
psychoanalytic theory
freud, human behavior determined by unconscious forces
free association
patient says whatever comes to mind without censoring anything, free thoughts
interpretation
analyst points out to the patient the meanings of certain parts of the patient’s behavior
transference
patient’s responses to his and her analyst that seem to reflect attitudes and ways of behaving toward important people in the person’s past rather than reflect actual aspects of the analyst patient relationship
superego
conscience, develops as we incorporate parental and society values
ego
conscious, reality principle
id
unconscious, pleasure principle (immediate gratification)
behaviorism
emphasis on learning rather than innate tendencies; focus on observable behavior rather than unobservable things like id, ego, etc
rational emotive therapy
A Cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis’ theory that cognitions control our emotions and behaviors; therefore, changing the way we think about things will affect the way we feel and the way we behave.
biological causes of disorders
heredity/imbalances in brain chemistry/disordered development of structures
genotype
genetic material you inherit
phenotype
observable characteristics you exhibit
genes
carriers of genetic information, impacted by environmental influences
bidirectional
the relationship between genes and environment is ________
diathesis
underlying vulnerability, gene
stress
environmental experience (low economic status, childhood maltreatment)
diathesis-stress
underlying genetic vulnerability plus environmental stressor may trigger development of disorder
heritability
extent to which variability in behavior is due to genetic factors
shared environment
events and experiences that family members have in common
nonshared environment
events and experiences that are unique to each family member
polygenic traits
more than 1 gene for every disorder, many genes contribute some risk, add up risk from all the genes to get the disorder
gene environment interaction
response to a specific environmental event is influenced by your genes
reciprocal gene environment interaction
genes predispose people to seek out situations that increase likelihood of developing a disorder
neuroscience paradigm
contribution of brain structure and function to psychopathology, mental processes are linked to processes in the brain
neuroendocrine
interaction between brain and hormone release system, contains hpa axis
HPA axis
study pathway through release of cortisol, mediates impact of external stressors on the body through changing the amount of cortisol released, which changes how we handle stressors because of cortisols role in helping us respond to stress
cortisol
involved in stress,A stress hormone that releases sugars into the blood, helping to prepare the body to respond to a threat , increases blood sugar and suppresses immune system
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight, increase heartbeat, pupil dilation, gastrointestinal inhibition
parasympathetic nervous system
heart beat deceleration, pupil constriction, gi activation, rest and digest
reductionism
view that behavior can best be understood by reducing it to its basic biological components, ignores more complex views of behavior
polygenic traits difficult to determine
1) not all with the disorder have same genetic risk factors 2) some people without disorder have some genetic risk factors for disorder
autonomic nervous system
contains sympathetic and parasympathetic ns, fight or flight and rest and digest
advantages of biological paradigm
scientifically based, testable hypotheses, applies to all disorders, helpful treatments
disadvantages of biological paradigm
reductionism, not all psychological disorders have a known biological base, medication alone does not teach individuals adaptive skills, correlation doesn’t equal causation,
risk factor
variable associated with increased risk of disease or infection, correlational not causal, # of short risk alleles increases risk for depression among those experiencing maltreatment–doesn’t mean the person will definitely get depression
cognitive behavioral paradigm
roots in learning principles and cognitive science, behavior is reinforced by consequences (attention, escape or avoidance, sensory stimulation, access to desirable objects or events), to alter behavior, modify consequences; combines behavioral and cognitive models to explain abnormal behaviors and treat psychological disorders
exposure therapy
habituate to a stimulus over time, associate stimulus with safety rather than ranger, ex: ptsd example, important for anxiety disorders
positive reinforcement
behaviors followed by pleasant stimuli are strengthened
negative reinforcement
behaviors that terminate a negative stimulus are strengthened
assumptions of cognitive behavioral paradigm
abnormal behavior is learned, observable behavior is the topic of investigation
behavior therapy
use learning methods to change abnormal behavior, thoughts, and feelings, counterconditioning
counterconditioning
behavior paradigm, learning a new response, exposure therapy helps with this, ptsd example
behavioral paradigm advantages
scientifically based, predictive of behavior, generates research, testable hypotheses, effective treatments-one of the most effective, even more than medication
behavioral paradigm disadvantages
over simplifies,cannot explain all disorders, neglects feelings and thoughts, views humans as solely victims of their environments
cognitive paradigm assumptions
thoughts determine behavior and emotion, thoughts can be changed, changing thoughts=changing emotions and behavior
schemas
cognitive structures that consist of fundamental beliefs and assumptions, organized network of previously accumulated knowledge, actively interpret new info
cognition
mental process which includes: perceiving, judging, reasoning, conceiving, and recognizing
cognitive paradigm advantages
lots of research, testable hypotheses, effective treatments, cognitive accounts make sense to patients
role of attention
anxious individuals more likely to attend to threat or danger (ex: stroop test)
cognitive paradigms disadvantages
problems in thinking may not cause disorders, may be effect of disorder
beck’s cognitive therapy
initially developed for depression, depression caused by distorted thoughts, helps patients recognize and change maladaptive thought patterns
one dimensional models
explaining behavior in terms of a single cause
multidimensional models
interdisciplinary, integrative, multiple determinants of behavior–biological factors, behavioral, envi, developmental, cognitive
integrative approach
multiple causation, broad, comprehensive perspective, useful to understand psychopathology and to prevent and treat psychopathology
classify abnormal behaviors
communication, suggests treatment, prediction, organizes research, societal demands
reliability
consistency of measurement
interrater reliability
The degree to which two or more independent observers agree in their ratings of another organism’s behavior
test retest reliability
ability of the same instrument to produce consistent results when used a second time under conditions as similar as possible to the original conditions
alternate form reliability
A type of reliability, where different versions of same instrument are used and scores are compared
internal consistency reliability
assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in time
validity
does it measure what it is supposed to measure–do we think the construct is being measured
content validity
how well a test measures all of the contributing variables in your construct
criterion validity
is the measure you are , Form of validity concerned with how accurately a new measure can predict a well-accepted criterion, or previously validated concept, ex: predict intelligence
construct validity
does it measure what it is supposed to measure, Degree to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure, of highest concern
concurrent validity
A measurements ability to correlate or vary directly with an accepted measure of the same construct
predictive validity
Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.
2 axes of dsm 5
psychiatric/medical and psychosocial/environmental
criticisms of dsm
stigma and labeling, categories do not capture uniqueness of individual, implies that abnormal and normal are categorically different
categorical system of diagnosis
yes or no, does someone have something, person who meets criteria could have 1 day more of depression than a person who doesn’t, dsm uses this today
dimensional system of diagnosis
how severe is the disorder? provides richer info than yes or no, ranks severity
normal distribution
population mean is most common, extremes less common, bell shape
x axis
severity
y axis
frequency in population
improvements in dsm
increasing number of diagnostic categories, issues and possible diagnostic categories in need of further study
ethnic and cultural considerations (of dsm)
mental illness is universal, culture can influence types of symptoms, willingness to seek help etc, commonalities rather than differences across cultures
clinical assessment
systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological problems
purposes of clinical assessment
understand individual, diagnose, predict behavior, plan treatment, evaluate treatment outcome
standardization
process by which a set of standards or norms are determined
value of assessment
reliability, validity, standardization
clinical interviews
language used to gather info about patient, attention to how the patient answers, empathy, can be highly structured or informal-depends on paradigm used
psychological tests
standardized procedures designed to measure a person’s performance on a task or to assess his or her personality (projective, personality, intelligence tests)
projective personality test
project aspects of personality onto ambiguous stimuli, inference in scoring (ex:rorschach and tat)
objective personality test
not ambiguous, ex: mmpi2, results easy to interpret, research
iq test
intelligence estimate, reliable, predictive of academic performance, construct validity difficult to assess, high criterion validity
cognitive assessment
das, identifies maladaptive thoguht patterns, standardized, interpretation the same, construct validity high
behavioral assessment
present behavior, present context, straightforward, minimal interference, identify target behavior, ex: ema
behavioral and cognitive methods
direct observation, self monitoring, interviews, self report inventories, thought diaries, ex: clinician observes parent-child interaction
neurobiological assessment
brain imaging, many behavioral problems can be brought on by brain dysfunctions, these tests have been used to identify brain dysfunction
neurotransmitter assessment
assess metabolites in blood, measures are not direct reflections of levels of NT in brain
neuropsychological test
used in conjunction with brain imaging techniques to detect brain dysfunction, and to help pinpoint specific areas of behavior that are impacted by problems in the brain
psychophysiological assessment
concerned with bodily changes that are associated with psychological events, measures of heart rate, blood flow, electrical activity in brain when people are afraid
Categories: Abnormal Psychology