Abnormal Psychology Exam 1

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Abnormal Psychology
The scientific of abnormal behavior in an effort describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning.
Deviance
Behavior, thoughts, and emotions that break norms of psychological functioning. Crosses the line when it interferes.
Dysfunction
Abnormal behavior tends to be dysfunctional when it interferes with daily functioning.
Trephination
An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull, perhaps to treat abnormal behavior.
Prehistoric Societies
viewed abnormal behavior as the work of evil spirits. They used trephination and exorcism to treat abnormal behavior.
Greeks and Romans
Offered more enlightened explanations of mental disorders.
Hippocrates believed that abnormal was caused by an imbalance of the four bodily fluids or humors: black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm.
Treatment consisted of correcting the underlying physical pathology through diet and lifestyle
The Middle Ages
Returned to demonolological explanations.
The clergy was very influential and held that mental disorders were the work of the devil.
As the Middle Ages drew to a close, such explanationsand treatments began to decline, and people with mental disorders were increasingly treated in hospitals instead of by the clergy.
The Renaissance
Care of people with mental disorders continued to improve during the early part of the Renaissance. Certain religious shrines became dedicated to the humane treatment of such individuals.
By the middle of the 16th century, however, persons with mental disorders were being warehoused in asylums.
The Ninteenth Century
Care of people with mental disorders started to improve again with the movement toward moral treatment.
Unfortunately the moral treatment movement disintegrated by the late 19th century, and mental hospitals again became warehouses where inmates received minimal care.
The Early Twentieth Century
Return of the somatogenic perspective: physical factors.
Kraeplins finding that general paresis was caused by the organic disease syphilis.
Rise of the psychogenic perspective: psychological. Rise of hypnotism to treat patients with hysterical disorders and Freud’s psychogenic approach: psychoanalysis.
Current trends
New psychotropic medications, Deinstitutionalization, Outpatient Treatment, Prevention, Multicultural Psychology, Insurance – Managed Care
Variety of perspectives and professionals have come to operate in the field of abnormal psychology, and many well-trained clinical researchers now investigate the field’s theories and treatments.
Deinstitutionalzation
The practice, begun in the 1960s, of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals.
Pushed out into the street.
Benjamin Rush
Father of American Psychiatry Responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the United States.
Dorothea Dix
A Schoolteacher who made humane care a public and political concern in the United States.
She went to state legislature to state legislature and to Congress speaking of the horrors she had observed at asylums, calling for reform. Resulting in new laws and greater government funding.
Somatogenic Perspective
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes. =body
Bender-Gestalt
A neurological test in which subject is asked to copy a set of nine simple designs and later reproduce the designs from memory,
DSM-IV-TR
most widely used classification system in US
The Four D’s
Deviance, Distress, Dysfunction, Danger
Exorcism
To coax the evil spirits to leave or to make the person’s body an uncomfortable place in which to live.
A Shaman or Priest might recite prayers, plead with the evil spirits, insult the spirits, perform magic, make loud noises, or have the person drink bitter potions.
Antipsychotic Drugs
correct extremely confused and distorted thinking. Tranquilizing psychiatric mediation used to managed psychosis 1950s-1970’s
Case Study
A detailed account of a person’s life and psychological problems. Low generalizability
Subject to bias of author of case study
Specific individual observed and described in detail
Cognitive Therapy
A therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes.
cognitive-behavioral therapies
Therapy approaches that seek to help clients change both counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinking.
idiographic understanding
An understanding of the behavior of a particular individual.
neurotransmitter
A chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons.
Model
A set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations. Also called paradigm.
Observational approach
Collecting information without asking participants directly for it. Outward behavior can be observed directly. Biological variables can be observed via technologically advanced methods
correlation
Correlation does NOT mean causation!
The degree to which events or characteristics vary along with each other.
Existentialism
A term since 19th centry. Focused on the conditon of human existence and an indivual emotions, actions, responisblities, or thoughts the meaning or purpose of life. Existential philopophers ofthen focused on subjective beliefs religion, the human state, feelings emotions such ad freedom, pain, guilt, knowledge.
Serotonin
amonamine neurotransmitter. found in gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.
Norepinephrine
is a catecholamine with roles including a hormone and neurotransmitter.
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; consists of more than 500 selt-statements: T/F/Cannot say
syndrome
certain symptoms regularly occur together; cluster of symptoms
Epidemiological study
a study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population.
Humanism
is an approach in study, philopshy world view or practice, that focuses on human values and concerns attaching prin improtance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
Diathesis Stress Model
is psychological theory that explains behavior as both bio and genetic vulnerability and stress from life experiences. Stress = onset disorder.
Biopsychosocial model
approach that posits that biological psychological and social factors all play a role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness. every disease process can be explained in terms of underlying deviation from normal function.
Multiculutral perspective
The view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior of its members. Also called culturally diverse perspective.
Super ego
According to Freud, the psychological force that represents a person’s values and ideals.
personality inventory
A test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them.
projective test
A test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to.
id
Pleasure principle
primary process thinking/wish fulfillment
The system from which the libido emerges, and its drives and impulses see immediate release, operating by the pleasure principle (the drive to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain as quickly as possible-a number of reflex actions).
When the action cannot be taken, the human may use fantasies or memories to conjure up the desired object or experience.
Psychological Approaches
Approach to abnormality that focuses on personality, behavior, and ways of thinking as possible causes of abnormality.
psychodynamic model
It is based on the principles that psychological illnesses come about from repressed emotions and thoughts from experiences in the past (usually childhood), and as a result of this repression, alternative behaviour replaces what is being repressed.
cognitive model
It is hoped that if the patient’s feelings and emotions towards something are influenced to change, it will induce external behavioural change. Though similar in ways to the Behavioural Model, psychiatrists of this model use differing methods for cures
behavioral model
all maladaptive behavior is essentially acquired through one’s environment. Therefore, Psychiatrists practicing the beliefs of this model would be to priorities changing the behavior over identifying the cause of the dysfunctional behavior
Biological model
is based on the assumptions that if the brain, neuroanatomy and related biochemicals are all physical entities and work together to mediate psychological processes, then treating any mental abnormality must be physical/biological. Part of this theory stems from much research into the major neurotransmitter, Serotonin,
Sociocultural Model
Argues that abnormal behavior is best understood in light of the social and cultural forces that influence an individual. Addresses norms and roles in society
Influenced by sociology and anthropology
psychotropic medications
Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
MMPI
true false test used for personality
Tat
thematic appoctetion test.
roshach
inkblot test
projective tests
help you get a sense of a person
Eeg
brainwaves
mri
magnetic residence imaging
Cat scan
computerized axial tomography
Categories: Abnormal Psychology