Abnormal Psychology: Integrative Approach Chapter 2

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multidimensional integrative approach
Approach to the study of psychopathology that holds psychological disorders as always being the products of multiple interacting causal factors.
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
diathesis-stress model
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
vulnerability
Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder.
reciprocal gene-environment model
Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder.
neuroscience
perspective on psychology that emphasizes the study of the brain and its effects on behavior
neuron
a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
synaptic cleft
synaptic gap or synaptic space; tiny gap between the terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron (almost never touch); location of the transfer of an impulse from one neuron to the next
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
hormone
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
brain circuits
neurotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain.
reuptake
A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
agonist
(biochemistry) a drug that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiological reaction
epigenetics
the study of how certain experiences effect genes. how these genes’ switches are either turned on or off, thereby altering gene expression.
antagonist
a drug that neutralizes or counteracts the effects of another drug
inverse agonist
a substance that binds to a receptor and causes it to do the opposite of what the naturally occurring transmitter does
glutamate
a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
Gamma Aminobutyric Acid : GABA
inhibitory neurotransmitter system that is thought to be associated with anxiety
serotonin
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
norepinephrine
neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal and the fight-or-flight system (also mood, sleep, and learning)
dopamine
neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson’s disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
cognitive science
field of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information.
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
modeling
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
prepared learning
Learning that occurs without extensive training because of an evolved predisposition to the behavior.
implicit memory
memories ppl are not consciously aware but can affect subsequent performance, retention independent of conscious recollection
flight-or-flight response
physiological response of the body to stress, which prepares the individual to take action by stimulating the vital defense system.
emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
mood
the prevailing psychological state
affect
the conscious subjective aspect of feeling or emotion
equifinality
Developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes.
cognitive behavioural therapy
group of treatment procedures aimed at identifying faulty thought processes, attitudes, and attributions, and problem behaviors; often used synonymously with cognitive therapy
implicit cognition
unconcious cognitive processes that are difficult to measure because people cannot verbalize them, as they are not even aware of them.
interpersonal psychotherapy
Newer brief treatment approach that emphasizes resolution of interpersonal problems and stressors such as role disputes in marital conflict, or forming new relationships in marriage or a new job. It has demonstrated effectiveness for such problems as depression
observational learning
type of learning that doesn’t require direct experience; rather, an organism can learn by observing what happens to another organism and later imitating the other organisms behaviour (modelling)
Categories: Abnormal Psychology