Abnormal Psychology Terms <3

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classification
assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics
DSM IV-R
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. made to be descriptive, to provide clear diagnostic categories, symptoms, etc
generalized anxiety disorder GAD
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
phobias
a group of anxiety disorders involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situation
obsessive compulsive disorder OCD
an anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of anxiety are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain ritualistic actions
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
disturbed behavior that is attributed to a major stressful event but that emerges after the stress is over
somatoform disorders
a class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments with no authentic organic basis that are due to psychological factors
conversion disorder
psychological stress converts to physical symptoms
hypochondriasis
someone in fear of something happening to them
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorder (DID) former multiple personality disorder
when you transformed into a new person, you dissociate from your consciousness- NOT SCHIZOPHRENIA
mood disorders
class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes
major depressive disorder
mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
bipolar disorder
mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
mania
mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
schizophrenia
group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
paranoid
unjustifiable beliefs or interpretations of another’s actions as threatening
catatonic
a type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
anti social personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
Christopher Peterson
studied how people explain bad events and identified pessimistic and optimistic explanatory styles and their differences, one of founders of positive psychology
Philippe Pinel
French physician who worked to reform the treatment of people with mental disorder, pioneered in the humane treatment of the mentally ill
David Rosenhan
Rosenhan experiment- pretended to be diagnosed with schizophrenia in 12 mental hospitals (along with other professionals), continued to act as a patient but eventually dropped his “abnormal behavior,” discovered that nobody on the staff recognized this difference but the actual mental patients did

conclusion- faculty members of a mental institution would cease to interact with patients as individuals once they were labeled with their disorder

his experiment challenged the validity of psychiatry diagnoses

Martin Seligman
father of modern positive psychology, learned helplessness on animal experiment
psychoanalysis (psychodynamic therapy, transference, resistance, interpretation)
psychodynamic therapy- attempt to relate personality to the interplay of conflicting impulses within the individual, including some that the individual may not consciously recognize

transference- client is transferring the behaviors/feelings towards someone important onto their therapist

humanistic: client centered, insight therapy, unconditional positive regard
therapist listens to the client with total acceptance and total positive regard
behavioral: counter conditioning, exposure therapy, systemic desensitization, aversive conditioning
counter conditioning- replaces unpleasant emotional responses to a stimulus with a more pleasant, adaptative response

exposure therapy- treats phobias by increasing exposure to the feared object

systematic desensitization- gradually applying counterconditioning to treat a phobic

aversive conditioning- use of something unpleasant to stop an unwanted behavior

cognitive: token economy, cognitive-behavioral
token economy- reward system used for behavior modification

cognitive behavioral- emphasizes that thinking (cognitive) plays in how we feel and act (behavioral)

group therapy
treatment administered to a group all at once
family therapy
treatment based on the assumptions that most people’s problems develop in a family setting and that the best way to deal with them is to improve family relationships/communication
biomedical therapy
methods of treatment of mental illnesses by the use of medication/surgery
drug therapy: anti psychotics, anti depressants, Tardive Dyskinesia
antipsychotics- class of medication used in psychiatry to manage psychotic symptoms

anti depressants- substance used to treat certain mental disorders, used to influence brain chemistry

Tardive Dyskinesia- nervous system disorder that results in repetitive, involuntary body movements such as grimacing/rapid eye blinking/etc

brain stimulation (ECT, rTMS)
ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)- aka shock therapy, type of biomedical therapy in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain in order to produce chemical change

rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation)- non invasive technique that has a magnetic field emanating from a wire coil outside the head, induces electrical current in nearby regions of brain

psychosurgery (lobotomy)
psychosurgery- method to psychological disorders through brain surgery

lobotomy- procedure once used to reduce uncontrollably violent emotional people, type of psychosurgery in which the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the parts of the brain that controls emotions are severed

therapeutic lifestyle change
set of lifestyle changes that include dietary/smoking/weight changes
meta analysis
instead of conducting new research, researchers examine results of previous studies
evidence based practice
clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
Aaron Beck
1921-present; father of Cognitive Therapy, created Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories
Dorothea Dix
reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820’s, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War
Albert Ellis
1913-2007; Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET), focuses on altering client’s patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions

RET- treatment based on the assumption that thoughts (rationality) lead to emotions and that problems arise not from the unpleasant emotions themselves but from the irrational thoughts that lead to them

Sigmund Freud
1856-1939; id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference
Mary Cover Jones
“mother of behavior therapy”; used classical conditioning to help unlearn fear, counter conditioning
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; founded person-centered therapy- theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
Benjamin Rush
father of American psychiatry, sought for more humane treatments for mentally ill but still used bloodletting and purgatives
Joseph Wolpe
described use of systematic desensitization to treat phobias
Categories: Abnormal Psychology