Abnormal psychology test 1

Published by admin on

what is the term crazy used for
it is a catch all for something abnormal and fills the question for why
when people say there is no such thing as normal what are they doing
they are escaping the definition of normal
why do people escape the definition of normal
1. we dont know how to define it
2. we are scared to define it
What is normal
the bell curve
what were the past criteria for normal and abnormal
1. cultural relativism
2. unusalness of behavior
3. distress
4. mental ilness
how does cultural relativism define normality
what states that behaviors can only be abnormal relative to cultural norms and that there is no universal standards or rules labeling a behavior as normal
when saying that behaviors can only be abnormal relative to cultural norms how does this effect people with mental disorders
by saying this this means we cant help people with mental disorders because it is normal (ex. gender roles)
what is the criteria for normality with the unsualness of behavior
this asks if the behavior is rare. it depends part on the norms for that behavior in a culture
what is the criteria for normality with distress
the behavior is only abnormal if the individual suffers. Some object this because people are not always aware of problems i.e. addiction
what is the criteria for normality with mental illness
this implies that there is a disease process. Yet, there is no medical test that identifies “mental illness”.
what is a psychological diagnosis
it is a label for a set of defined sympotms
what are the four F’s of abnormality
1. frequency
2. function
3. feeling pain
4. fatal
what is frequency
this is associated with the bell curve. Abnormality isn’t a different bizarre behavior but it is how frequent the behavior is.
what are the ABC’s of frequency
curve, behavior, amount of time (each including the previous category)
what is funtion
it is when the frequency of a behavior begins effecting daily life
what is feeling pain
it is when the frequency of a behavior that effects daily life becomes painful mentally or emotionally to someon
what is fatal
this is when a behavior effects daily life that it becomes so painful someone rather die than deal with it
how people understand abnormality affects what
they do with it
what are some ancient theories about abnormality
stone age,touching heads, biological, medieval views, and supernatural
How did the stone age understand abnormality
they thought it was due to spirit possession
How did the stone age dealt with abnormality
they would drill into skull to let the spirits out (trephination)
How did the biological problem understand abnormality
in 5th century B.C. they thought mental illness was due to a biological problem
How did Hippocrates understand abnormality
he argued that deviant behavior was a result of physical cuases
what is Somatogenesis
what is the view that deviant behavior occurs because of disease in the body
How did Hippocrates deal with abnormality
he thought cognitive functioning could be restored by balancing the 4 humors in the body
what are the 4 humors in the body
blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm
How did touching heads view/deal with abnormality
they thought that heads have different bumps in different locations that correlate to certain areas and issues
define phrenology
what is the thought that heads have different bumps in different locations that correlate to certain areas and issues
what were the medieval views with abnormality
they thought it was due to witch craft and psychic epidemics
How did the medieval views deal with abnormality
they thought the ill person was cursed and the witch had to be killed to release the person from the illness
How did supernatural view abnormality
they thought that demonic possessions took over the ill person
how did supernatural deal with abnormality
they would perform an exorcism
what is the importance of the movie of The Exorcism of Emily Rose
this showed the dichotomy of science and religion in the court of law
what are some of the modern perspectives on abnormality
biological, psychoanalytic, behaviorism, cognitive
psychopathology is dynamic so list the parts that make it dynamic
1. molecular (genetics biology)
2. Individualized (thoughts affect behavior)
3. relational (families, romantic partners)
4. cultural (society normality ex. gender roles, ethnicity, and nationality)
what are some professions within abnormal psychology
psychiatrist, clinical and social workers, psychiatric nurses, licensed mental health counselors, marriage and family councilor
what is a Ph.D
it is a clinical and counseling psychologist
what is a Psy.D
it is a clinical and counseling “doctors of psychology”
what is a M.D.
it is a psychiatrist
what is the diathesis-stress model
it is the diathesis (nature) and stress (nurture) idea of how a disorder is developed
what is the aspects of the diathesis (nature) part
the biological factor includes genes, brain, biochemistry
the social factor includes the upbringing
the psychoogical factor includes the unconscious
what is the aspects of the stress (nurture) part
the biological trigger includes toxins and disease
the social trigger includes a traumatic event
the psychological trigger includes a perceived loss of control or a violation of trust
what is the difference of diathesis and stress
diathesis is more about genetics and the unconscious feelings about a situation the stress is usually an outside force
define theory
what is a united, organizing and guiding approach found within a discipline
What was Phineas Gage’s story, what did we learn from him, and what theory does he correlate to
he was a railroad worker, a rod was shot up through his skull and he lived. After the accident he was a completely different person, we learned about localization and plasticity, he correlates to the biological theory specifically brain structure
what is localization
the brain has different parts that regulate specific things
what is plasticity
what is something that effects one part of the brain the brain has the power to mold and adapt to compensate
Parts of the brain: frontal lobe
it is the site of executive functioning (thinking and personality)
Parts of the brain: temporal lobe
it is the site of hearing and understanding speech
Parts of the brain: parietal lobe
it is the site for sensations
Parts of the brain: occipital lobe
it is the site for vision
Parts of the brain: cerebellum
it is the site for balance and movement
Parts of the brain: Spinal cord
it is the site that transmits information to the body and back to the brain
what are the parts (in order) of a neuron
dendrites
cell body
axon
axon terminal buttons
synapse
what are neurotransmitters
what are chemical messengers
how do neurotransmitters work
they bind to dendritic receptor sites on another neuron
define reuptake
what happens when a neurotransmitter is taken back into the pre synaptic cell
what is an SSRI
what is a Selective Serotonin Re uptake Inhibitor
define degradation
what happens when an enzyme breaks down a neurotransmitter before it can make it to the dendrites or before re-uptake occurs
define gene
what is the biological component that informs cells and contains inherited information
What do some genes do
some genes may carry information that influences development or on set of some diseases
what are the biological theories treatments for abnormality
1. parmacotherapy (medicine)
2. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
3. psychosurgery (cutting the brain)
What is the example where someone had their brain cut as a treatment for abnormality
A guy had seizures, so they cut his corpus collosium (which allows the 2 sides of the brain to communicate). His left and right brains acted independently. To be able to think using both sides of his brain it had to be written out on paper
What are the psychological approaches to abnormality
psychodynamic and interpersonal and behavioral theories
how does psychodynamic and interpersonal view abnormality
what is a view where abnormality is viewed by being influenced by unconscious processes. people develop strategies for relating to the world, which aid in their own protection or defense
Who is the father of psychodynamic and interpersonal theory
Sigmund Freud
What was Freud’s view on unconscious processes
id: the primal instincts
ego: tries to satisfy both id and superego and is actually how you behave
superego: decides what is right and what is wrong and wants to act on the right
these are always in constant fight inside a person
what are the defense mechanims
1. denial: refuse to admit something is going on
2. regression: act like a child
3. repression: you push it away and try not to think about it (unconciously)
4. fixation: you can only think about that thing
5. reaction formation: instead on acting on the emotions you have you deal with them in a differnt way
6. projection: getting angry at someone for something you do
7. displacement: placing emotions on others who did nothing wrong
8. suppression:
9.un-doing attempt to take back a bad behavior
10. sublimation:channeling of unacceptable impulses
what are the behavioral theories of abnormality
classical conditioning
operant conditioning
social learning
what is classical conditioning and who is associated with this behavioral theory
it is learning via association
this is seen by Pavlov and his dogs
what is operant conditioning and who is associated with this behavioral theory
it is learning via consequence
this is seen by Skinner
what is social learning and who is associated with this behavioral theory
it is learning via consequence of others
this is seen the the BoBo doll and aggression in kids after seeing their parents react with the doll
What does behavioral therapies focus on
what focuses on identifying the reinforcement and punishments by contributing to a person’s maladaptive behaviors and changing specific behaviors
what is found actions for behavioral therapy
what is the behavioral assessment of the client’s problem
what are some techniques for behavior change
relaxation exercises: controls anxiety
desensitization: relaxation and exposure to adverse stimuli
aversion: creates reinforcing behaviors no longer reinforcing
What are the humanistic approaches to abnormality
what assumes that humans have an innate capacity for goodness and for living a full life
what is Abraham Maslow’s humanistic approach to abnormality
He created the hierarchy of needs and at the top is self actualization. He believes that humans want to reach self-actualization and it can be reached.
In humanistic therapy who created the client-centered therapy and when
Carl Rogers 1951
what are the three things client-centered therapy entail
1. genuineness
2. unconditional positive regard
3. empathetic understanding
In the client- centered therapy why is genuineness important
being yourself enforces the client to try to have the same level of self actualization you have
in the client-centered therapy why is unconditional positive regard important
being proud of them is a way to encourage their pursuit of self actualization
In the client-centered therapy why is empathetic understanding important
this prevents person ethics of getting in the way and you can understand why they are upset and sometimes people just want to be understood
define empathy
what is understanding why someone is emotional
define sympathy
what is feeling the same emotions someone else feels
What does cognitive theories say about abnormality and who is associated with it
what is that cognitions (thoughts or beliefs) shape our behaviors and the emotions we experience. We develop our beliefs about how the world works at an early age
what is the common sense model
what is where an event leads to an emotion
what is the cognitive model
what is where an event leads to the meaning someone gives to an event which leads to an emotion
What are some global common dysfunctional assumptions
i should be loved by everyone for everything i do.
once something affects my life itll affect it forever.
i must have perfect self control.
its better to avoid problems than to face them.
i should be terribly upset by certain situations.
what do cognitive therapies do with abnormality
they identify and challenge the negative thought and dysfunctional belief system
what is the hierarchy associated with cognitive therapies
core belief, intermediate beliefs, and automatic thought
what is experimental approaches, what is the main focus and who is associated with it
what is that experiences cannot be re-lived, so they discuss the experience that created dysfunction and replace it. it is emotion focused and Gestalt
what is emotion-focused approach
what focuses on peoples ability to understand and regulate emotions. This includes regulating, identifying, and expressing them
what are the recognized emotions and who is associated with it
happiness
sadness
anger
fear
surprise
disgust
and Paul Echman
what is an instrumental emotion
what is an emotion used to cover what you really feel
What was Gestalt known for
He said the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Vuntt (professor) and his student Titcher thought that breaking apart the mind was the best way to study it but Gestalt argued that you would miss the big picture of why
What to humans yearn for
completeness
when was the beginning of psychology
1879
what is an empty chair technique
you talk to an empty chair like it is someone you have unfinished business with and you tell them all the things you can’t this give a person closure
what is multicultural and feminism therapy deal with
gender, religion, socioeconomic, class, size, age
What is family systems therapy
what is where an individuals problems are rooted in interpersonal systems (particularly family). It is where an individual cannot be helped without treating the entire family system that created and maintains the problem
What is intergrationist therapy
what integrates different aspects of all theories into the best individualized treatment for the client
define multi theoretical psychotherapy
(MTP) what integrates different aspects of all theories into the best individualized treatment for the client
what are the common events in effective treatments
1. positive relationship with the client
2. encourages clients to confront painful emotions and hce techniques for helping them become less sensitive to these emotions
3. provide clients with an explanation or interpretation of why they are suffering
which therapy/theory is the best
all are helpful for guiding
no theory is proven to be better
any therapy is better than none
what did Rosenhan question
who questioned do people exhibit symptoms of psychopathology or are symptoms created by observer
What was Rosenhan’s first study
in 1973 8 pseudopatients were recruited and told to go to these 12 hospitals and report hearing voiced that were unfamiliar and in the same sex. All were admitted, once admittance they ceased the reports of voices. 11 were diagnosed with schizophrenia and one was diagnosed with manic depressive psychosis. They stayed 7-52 days the average was 19
What problems did Rosenhan’s first study bring up
labels and their stickiness
conformation bias
staffs lack of interaction with patients
patients were inaccurately diagnosed
the real patients could tell the pseudopatients apart
and patients were able to dump 2,100 pills without being caught
what does the term label and their stickiness mean
what means that when given a label the client could hold on to that label and believe it and that the label will follow them around
what does the term conformation bias mean
what is interpreting behaviors in such a way that they fit the diagnosis you want to give them
What was Rosenhan’s second study
A doctor at the hospital complained that they were not warned so the study was invalid. So, he told the 12 hospitals that he was going to send some pseudopatients over 3 months. Out of 193 patients assessed, 41 were labeled pseudopatient (by staff), 23 were labeled pseudopatient (by psychiatrist), and 19 were labeled pseudopatient (by both). The researcher sent none.
Who explains why we need assessments and how
Meehl (1953) found that mechanical methods of data combination out performed clinical methods
What happens in a clinical interview
what happens when they ask questions and gather information
define psychometric
how we can tell if a test is good
What are the psychometric properties
reliability=consistency
validity=accuracy
standardization=source of comparison
define objective psychological tests
what has discrete response sets, lowers subjectivity, and the answer is right or wrong
define projective psychological test
what does not have discrete response sets, and has more subjectivity
What is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and is it objective or projective
what is 567 random questions with answers choices of 3 kind “true” “false” and “cant say” developed by Greene in 2000. it assesses personality. at first it was given to people with schizophrenia and to the family members of these people this was an obvious problem. it is objective
what is the Wechster Intelligence scale and is it objective or projective
what measures intelligence quotients (IQ) it used to be done by the formula IQ=mental age/actual age. this is used to identify individuals with cognitive defects. Below 70 (20%) is intellectual disability. Above 130 (2%) is the MENSA. 70-130 is where 96% of people are. This is an objective test
What is the Rorschach test and is it objective or projective
what is the inkblot test. (that came from a game) it is where people project themselves onto 10 ambiguous image. it has 2 phases 1. show cards and ask what they see 2. ask where they saw the image. This is projective
What is thematic appreception test (TAT) and is it objective or projective
what is where a patient looks at a picture and makes up a story about what is going on in the picture. It is projective
What is the House, Tree, Person test
what is usually used with children, they draw a house, tree and person. small house=rejection. tree with slender trunk and large branches=need for satisfaction. lots of detail in the persons face=need to present themselves in a socially acceptable way.
What do mental health professionals use to diagnose
what is the diagnostic and statistics manual of mental disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5)
define diagnosis
what is a label used for symptoms that are typically clustered together
what does diagnosis lead to
treatment
what are the benefits to diagnosis
informs treatment (main reason)
classification
normalization
What is involved in classification
1. nomenclature
2. informational retrieval
3. description
4. prediction
5. concept formation
6. sociopolitical
what are problems with diagnosises
misdiagnosis
sticky labels
biases
culpability
social control
stigma
what problems with diagnosis’s comes from health professionals
misdiagnosis
what problems with diagnosis’s come form society
Sticky labels
biases
culpability
social control
stigma
define cupability
what is trying to use something to get out of responsibilities
define social control
what is when people believe that a diagnosis is given in order to control them
define stigma
what is a particular attitude towards a person because of their diagnosis
why do we research
to make informed decisions
What was Clever Hans and Osten
a horse could be presented with a math equation from his teacher and would stop out the correct answer.
What did Pfungst do
He set up an experiment so that a math problem would be presented to Hans when Osten didn’t know the answer and when he did. Hans couldn’t do math when Osten didn’t know the answer. So he put blinders on the horse and got the same results. He noticed that whenever Hans was close to the answer Osten would slightly and unknowingly lean in and Hans would stop stomping.
What is clever hands
what is facilitated communication by a third party holding a persons elbow helping them type.
What was the issue with clever hands
A girl typed out that her dad touched her. Wagner set up a very similar experiment to Hans and Osten. The girl could not respond when her facilitated communicator did not hear the question.
what does conducting a scientific research include
defining a problem
specifying a testable hypothesis
choosing a method
operationalizing the variables
what does operationalizing the variables mean
what is assigning a dependent (what we are predicting) and an independent variables (the predictors)
what are the objectives of science
1. describe
2. explain
3. predict
4. control
define case studies
what are detailed histories of individuals who have suffered from a psychological disorder
what does evaluating correlational studies involve
what studies the relationships or the correlations (correlation does not equal causation)
Categories: Abnormal Psychology