Abnormal psychology test chapter 1

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Abnormal psychology
the scientific study whose objectives are to describe, explain, predict and control behaviors that are considered strange or unusual
Predication of abnormal behavior
if a therapist can correctly identify the source of a clients difficulty, he or she should be able to predict the kinds of problems the client will face during therapy and the symptoms the client will display.
pyschopathology
clinical psychologists use term as synonym for abnormal behavior
psychodiagnosis
an attempt to describe, assess, and systematically draw inferences about an individual’s psychological disorder
Therapy
a program of systematic intervention whose purpose is to modify a client’s behavioral, affective (emotional) and or cognitive state
Psychologists
have PhD or PsyD. Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.
clinical psychology
professional field concerned with the study, assessment, treatment, and prevention of abnormal behavior in disturbed individuals
psychiatry
psychaitrists hold MDs their education includes the four years of medical school required for that degree along with an additional three or four years in psychiatry.
abnormal behavior
a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (e.g. painful symptom),disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering pain, death, disability, or an important loss of freedom
cultural universality
the assumption that a fixed set of mental disorders exists whose obvious manifestations cut across cultures
cultural relativism
the belief that lifestyles, cultural values, and world views affect the expression and determination of deviant behavior
four major means of judging psychopathology
distress, deviance, dysfunction, dangerousness
Disorientation (form of deviance)
confusion with regard to identity place or time.
culture
shared learned bx which is transmitted from one generation to another for purposes of individual and societal growth, adjustment, adaptation
prevalence
the percentage of people in a population who suffer from a disorder at a given point in time
lifetime prevalence
the total proportion of people in the population who have ever had a disorder in their lives
incidence
the onset or occurrence of a given disorder over some period of time
Psychiatric disorders in the US (adults)
at least 30 percent of nation’s adults suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder
Psychiatric disorders in the US (children)
20% of children show signs of diagnosable disorder in the course of a year & by 2020 neuropsychiatric disorders in children will increase by 50% &become one of the five most common forms of disability
biopsychosocial model
mental disorders are the result of interaction of biological,psychological,social factors
trephining
practice in which holes were drilled into the skull in an attempt to release evil spirits
brain pathology
a dysfunction or disease of the brain
mass madness
group hysteria in which great many ppl exhibit similar symptoms that have no apparent physical cause
tarantism (Saint Vitus’ dance)
a nervous disorder characterized by an uncontrollable impulse to dance EX. popularly attributed to bite of the southern European tarantula or wolf spider
lycanthropy
a delusion in which one imagines oneself to be a wolf or another wild animal
malleus maleficarum
the witch’s hammer-book published in 1486 outlining the nature & appearance of witches. The image that theauthors create of witches still exist largely untouched today
humanism
a philosophical movement that emphasizes human welfare and the worth and uniqueness of the individual
the rise of humanism (the renaissance)
resurgence of rational and scientific inquiry in 14-16 c.
Johann Weyer (german physician)
1563 wrote book debunking witchcraft. book banned but proved to be forerunner of humanitarian perspective on mental illness
moral treatment movement
(18-19 century) movement instituted by Philippe Pinel that resulted in a shift to more humane treatment of the mentally disturbed
william Tuke
Englishman- at about the same time as Philippe Pinel he devoted himself to establishing a model hospital for the humane treatment of psychiatric patients
phillipe pinel
a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral treatment. He also made notable contributions to the classification of mental disorders and has been described by some as “the father of modern psychiatry”.
Benjamin Rush (18 century)
father of American Psychology, guided mental institutions stateside towards a more humane direction.
dorothea dix
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820’s, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill.
The concerns of abnormal psychology are to:
A. Describing abnormal behavior B. Explaining abnormal behavior C . Predicting abnormal behavior D. Controlling abnormal behavior
Clifford Beers
(1876-1943) Founded the National Committee for Mental Hygiene wrote a book called “A mind that found itself”about his mental breakdown and badly treated in psych hospitals
biological view (organic view)
the belief that mental disorders have a physical or physiological base
syndromes
certain symptoms that tend to occur regularly in clusters
psychological view
the belief that mental disorders are caused by psychological and emotional factors rather than organic or biological ones
cathartic method
founded by dr Breuer, a therapeutic use of verbal expression to release pent-up emotional conflicts which foreshadowed psychoanalysis
behaviorism
psychological perspective that stressed the importance of learning and behavior in explanations of normal and abnormal development
managed health care
the industrialization of health care, whereby large organizations in the private sector control the delivery of services
multicultural psychology
an approach that stressed the importance of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, age, socioeconomic class, and other similar factors in its effort to understand and treat abnormal behavior
four dimensions related to cultural diversity
social conditioning, cultural values and influences, sociopolitical influences, and bias in dignosis
Gender differences in US
about 35% men have a psychiatric disorder, 29% of women do
Age differences in US
age range under 30 have 35%
highest is age 30-44 at 38% lowest is 65+ at 21%
Ethnicity in the US
Whites with psychiatric disorders: 31%
Black:38% hispanic:33%
Szasz’s-mental illness views
is a myth and political construction. 1.abnormal bx is labled because it is different not necessarily because it is a reflection of “illness’ 2. The unusual belief systems are not necessarily wrong. 3. Abnormal bx is frequently a reflection of something wrong with society rather than with the individual
Categories: Abnormal Psychology