AP Psych- Abnormal Psychology

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Psychological disorder
Deviant, distressful and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of more 3 key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Medical model
Mental illness needs to be diagnosed on the basis of it’s symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital
DSM-IV-TR
Widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
Anxiety disorders
Characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized anxiety disorder
Person is continually these apprehensive and in a stage of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic disorder
Marked by the unpredictable minutes long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or frightening sensations
Phobia
Marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoid of a specific object, activity, or situation
Obsessive compulsive disorder
characterized by persistent, repetitive, and unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions)
post-traumatic stress disorder
characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy, anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after traumatic experience
somatoform disorders
the symptoms take a bodily for without apparent physical cause
conversion disorder
rare somatoform disorder in which a person experience very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
hypochondriasis
disorder in chich a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
dissociative disorders
in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories,thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorder
rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits 2 or more distinct and alternating personalize
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
major depressive disorder
in which a person experiences in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, 2 or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings, or worthlessness and diminished activity or interests
post traumatic growth
positive psychological changes as result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life rises
mania
mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder
person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
schizophrenia
severe disorder characterized disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and in appropriate emotions and actions
delusions
false beliefs often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders
personality disorders
characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members
eclectic approach
an approach t psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
psychotherapy
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
psychoanalysis
Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transference – and the therapist’s interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
resistance
the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material
interpretation
the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
transference
the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
psychodynamic therapy
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
insight therapies
a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological awareness of underlying motives and defenses
client-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth
active listening
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which carl rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance
behavior therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
counterconditioning
behavior that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
exposure therapies
behavioral technique, such as desensitization that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
systematic desensitization
type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli
virtual reality exposure therapy
anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders or public speaking
aversive conditioning
type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
token economy
operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various priveledges or treates
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting
cognitive-behavioral therapy
popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior (changing behaviors)
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average
meta-analysis
procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
evidence-based practice
clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
biomedical therapy
prescribed medications ore medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
antipsychotic drugs
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of sever thought disorder
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
antianxiety drugs
drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
antidepressant drugs
drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent though the brain of anesthetized patient
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
psychosurgery
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
lobotomy
now-rare psychosurgical procedure one used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients; procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
resilience
the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma
Categories: Abnormal Psychology