AP Psych Ch. 12: Abnormal Psychology

Published by admin on

abnormal psychology
the study of people who suffer from psychological disorders
abnormality
maladaptive to individual, disturbing to others, unusual, irrational; does not make sense to the average person
insane
term used by people to describe psychological disorders–>NOT a medical term, but a legal term…those legally insane cannot be held fully responsible for crimes committed
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
A reference book used by psychologists and psychiatrists to diagnose psychological disorders.
multiaxial approach
each person is rated on five distinct dimensions or axes, with each axis referring to a different domain of a person’s functioning (clinical disorders, personality and developmental disorders, medical conditions, psychosocial conditions, and global assessment of functioning[GAF])
clinical disorders
first axis: major diagnosis, anxiety, dissociative, somatoform, mood, and schizophrenic
personality and developmental disorders
second axis
medical conditions
third axis: physical ailments that could impact a person’s psychological well-being
psychosocial conditions
environmental factors that may affect a person’s mental health
Global assessment of functioning (GAF)
scale used by mental health practitioners to quantify a client’s psychological function. 1-100. less than 50=hospital admission
eclectic psychologist
accepts and uses ideas from a number of different perspectives
anxiety disorders
A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.
specific phobia
[anxiety disorder] intense unwarranted fear of a situation or an object (ex. claustrophobia, arachnophobia, agoraphobia, social phobia)
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
[anxiety disorder] constant, low-level anxiety; constantly feeling nervous and out of sorts
panic disorder
[anxiety disorder] having acute episodes of intense anxiety without any apparent provocation; panic attacks are frequent and increase anxiety with paranoia
obsessive-compulsive disorder
[anxiety disorder] persistent, unwanted obsessions cause one to feel the compulsion to engage in a particular action
post-traumatic stress disorder
[anxiety disorder] having flashbacks or nightmares following one’s involvement in or observation of an extremely troubling event
somatoform disorders
a class of disorders where a person shows a psychological problem through a physiological symptom
hypochondriasis
[somatoform disorder] frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate a cause
conversion disorder
[somatoform disorder] reporting existence of severe physical problem, but no biological reason can be identified
dissociative disorders
a class of disorders where a person shows a disruption in conscious processes
psychogenic amnesia
[dissociative disorder] person cannot remember things and no physiological base for disruption can be identified
organic amnesia
[dissociative disorder] loss of memory resulting from physical trauma or damage to the brain
fugue
[dissociative disorder] experiencing psychogenic amnesia and finding self in an unfamiliar environment
dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality)
[dissociative disorder] a person has several personalities; commonly have history of sexual abuse or childhood trauma
mood/affective disorders
a class of disorders where one experiences extreme or inappropriate emotions
major depressive disorder (unipolar depression)
[mood/affective disorder] most common mood disorder; remaining unhappy for more than two weeks in absence of a clear reason; common symptoms include loss of appetite, fatigue, sleeping pattern changes, feelings of worthlessness
seasonal depressive disorder (SAD)
[mood/affective disorder] experiencing depression during certain times of the year, usually winter; treated with light therapy
bipolar disorder (manic depression)
[mood/affective disorder] involves depressed and manic episodes (feelings of high energy)
dysthymic disorder
[mood/affective disorder] less intense depressive disorder
cognitive triad
(Aaron Beck) there are 3 important areas of life that are most influenced by the depressive cognitive schema; this refers to information about the self, about the world, and about the future
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 625)
schizophrenic disorders
a class of disorders that is most severe and debilitating; disordered distorted thinking is often demonstrated through delusions/hallucinations
delusions
beliefs that have no basis in reality
persecution delusion
the belief that people are out to get you
grandeur delusion
the belief that you enjoy greater power/influence than you do
hallucinations
perceptions in the absence of any sensory stimulation
disorganized schizophrenia
[schizophrenic disorder] involves odd uses of language (neologisms, clang associations) and in some cases, inappropriate affect and flat affect
neologisms
made up words
clang associations
stringing together series of nonsense words that rhyme
inappropriate affect
inappropriate emotional response to a situation
flat affect
no emotional response to a situation
paranoid schizophrenia
[schizophrenic disorder] involves delusions of persecution
catatonic schizophrenia
[schizophrenic disorder] involves odd movements, being motionless in strange postures and suddenly moving jerkily; waxy flexibility
waxy flexibility
when motionless, allowing body to be moved and holding that new pose
undifferentiated schizophrenia
[schizophrenic disorder] exhibiting disordered thinking but no other schizophrenic symptoms
positive symptoms
excess in behavior, thought, or mood (neologisms, hallucinations)
negative symptoms
deficits (flat affect, catatonia)
Dopamine hypothesis
The idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity
tardive dyskinesia
muscle tremors and stiffness, effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 712)
double bind
a situation in which an individual is given two different and inconsistent messages. (cognitive-behavioral theory)
diathesis-stress model
a model suggesting that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
personality disorders
a class of disorders that involves well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people’s ability to function
antisocial personality disorder
[personality disorder] having little regard for other people’s feelings; many criminals have this
dependent personality disorder
[personality disorder] relying too much on attention and help of others
paranoid personality disorder
[personality disorder] feeling persecuted, not as intense as paranoid schizophrenia; no delusions
narcissistic personality disorder
[personality disorder] seeing oneself as the center of the universe
histrionic personality disorder
[personality disorder] having overly dramatic behavior
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
[personality disorder] being overly concerned with certain thoughts and behaviors–> not as extensive as OCD
paraphilias
disorders marked by the sexual attention to an object, person, or activity not usually seen as sexual
pedophilia
having an attraction to children
zoophilia
having an attraction to animals
voyeur
feeling sexually aroused while watching others engage in sexual behavior
masochism
feeling aroused by having pain inflicted upon oneself
sadism
feeling aroused by inflicting pain on someone else
substance use disorder
when the use of alcohol/drugs regularly and negatively affects one’s life
substance dependence
addiction
autism
slow in developing language skills
Attention deficit/hyperactive disorder
having difficulty developing skills
Categories: Abnormal Psychology