Ch. 1 Abnormal Psychology: Historical and Modern Perspectives

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Abnormal
deviating from what is normal, usual, or typical
Deviant
behaviors differ from prevailing norms or are statistically infrequent
Dangerous
behaviors threaten the safety of oneself or others
Dysfunctional
behaviors interfere with engaging in or completing daily tasks
Distress
behaviors lead to negative emotions
Is deviance abnormal? Does it indicate mental illness?
Deviance isn’t enough to say its abnormal.
Most of the time it doesn’t but it can indicate a mental illness.
Is danger abnormal? Does it indicate mental illness?
Danger isn’t enough to say its abnormal.
Most of the time it doesn’t but it can indicate mental illness.
Is dysfunction abnormal? Does it indicate mental illness?
Strong maybe or yes.
Is distress abnormal? Does it indicate mental illness?
Strong maybe or yes.
Ancient Theories
evil spirits, defiance of the gods, wandering uterus, imbalance of bodily fluids, witchcraft, heredity, degenerative brain changes
Psychoanalysis
abnormal behavior is rooted in the unconscious mind

unconscious mind filled with repressed memories and bad stuff. when you say you’ll do it later Freud thought that the things became repressed and went to unconscious mind.

Treatment for Psychoanalysis
insight, bringing the troubled material to consciousness; catharsis, releasing psychic energy
Behaviorism
abnormal behavior is learned

the environment controls our behavior. classical conditioning, Pavlov’s dog salivating; generalization, apply one behavior to a group of things (dog biting you)

Treatment for Behaviorism
learning adaptive behaviors
Denial
dealing with an anxiety-provoking stimulus by acting as if it doesn’t exist

ex. rejecting a physician’s cancer diagnosis

Displacement
taking out frustrations on a less-threatening
target

ex. slamming a door instead of hitting someone

Projection
putting your thoughts/feelings on someone else

ex. making a mistake at work but instead of admitting it, blaming it on a coworker whom you call “incompetent”

Repression/Suppression
sending thoughts/feelings to unconscious

ex. forgetting aspects of a traumatic event (sexual assault); actively trying to forget something that causes anxiety

Scientist-practitioner model
effective treatments based on large-scale research
Current perspectives
Biological, Psychoanalytic, Behaviorism, Cognitive, Humanistic, Sociocultural
Biological Model
abnormal behavior is the result of a biological event; such as, neuronal activity, structural or functional abnormalities, genetics, virus
Treatment for Biological Model
Medication, brain stimulation, brain surgery
Psychoanalytic Model
emphasize on unconscious mind and childhood; less emphasis on sexual/aggressive feelings
Treatment for Psychoanalytic Model
insight, bringing the troubled material to consciousness
Behavioral Model
learning occurs over a lifetime; operant conditioning, reward vs. punishment; shaping, training for specific response; vicarious conditioning, aka observational
Treatment for Behavioral Model
teaching adaptive behaviors; systematic desensitization, therapy to help range of anxiety disorders, go from 1-10 with the anxiety of spiders.
Cognitive Model
abnormal behavior is the result of disordered thinking; triad: self, world,future
Treatment for Cognitive Model
challenging and changing cognitive distortions; cognitive-behavioral therapy
Humanistic Model
abnormal behavior results from a lack of self-awareness; innate goodness and motivation of self-actualize; incongruent self-concept
Treatment for Humanistic Model
Client-centered therapy, which includes genuineness, empathy, and unconditional positive regard (UPR)
Sociocultural Model
abnormal behavior is influenced by social and cultural forces; gender; socioeconomic status (SES); interpersonal support; cultural-bound syndromes
Treatment for Sociocultural Model
Culturally-sensitive therapy
Biopsychosocial Model
acknowledges that many different factors probably contribute to the development of abnormal behavior and that different factors may be important for different people; no one perspective is able to explain all aspects of behavior (normal or abnormal); many different factors contribute to abnormality; utilizes the diathesis-stress, which is biological basis and stress serves as a trigger
What percent of respondents agreed that people bring on mental illness themselves?
43%
Categories: Abnormal Psychology