Chapter 1: Abnormal Psychology and Life
What makes behavior abnormal?
deviation from the norm
What are the three main things to look at when determining whether something is a mental disorder?
frequency, situational, and whether it’s impairing daily life
What type of behavior is one that impairs on daily life?
What is a mental disorder?
a group of emotional, cognitive, or behavioral symptoms that cause distress or significant problems in functioning
What is abnormal psychology?
scientific study of troublesome feelings, thoughts, and behaviors associated with mental disorders
What are the three general theories throughout history?
supernatural, biological, and psychological
What was the primary theory during ancient times?
What is trephination?
drilling, cutting, or scraping a hole in the skull
What did Hippocrates say abnormal behavior was due to?
to diseases or dysfunctions in the brain
What was Hippocrates’ humoral theory?
that disorders were caused by an imbalance of the four bodily fluids.
What are the four major body fluids?
blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm
What theories came back to psychology in the middle ages?
supernatural theories as well as exorcism
What is lycanthropy?
the belief that you have been turned into a demonic animal like a werewolf
Who were being persecuted frequently during the 11th century?
women who were declared to be witches
What was the Malleus Maleficarum?
the “Witch’s Hammer” that was a manual written by two priests, and outlined tests for witches
What were the most common ways to torture witches?
the breast ripper, burning at the stake, and burning in an iron chair
What happened in psychology during the renaissance?
a cultural movement that led to rebirth in natural approaches to health and human behavior
Who was Paracelsus in the early 1500s?
he rejected humoral theory and theorized that disease came from sources outside the body
Where does the term “Lunatic” come from?
Paracelsus’ theory of influence of moon and stars as explanation of abnormal behavior
What were asylums?
earliest version of psychiatric hospitals
What were the mentally disturbed beginning to be viewed as to society?
they were beginning to be seen as a threat, in response, laws were designed to protect the public from them
Who was Dr. Philippe Pinel?
French physician in charge of an asylum in Paris (La Bicetre hospital)
What did Dr. Pinel argue?
that abnormal behavior was due to a disease
What was something considered to be radical at the time that Dr. Pinel decided to do?
He decided to treat patients by removing shackles, allowed them fresh air and exercise, and treated with dignity and respect
What was the premise of “moral therapy”?
mental illness is due to separation from nature and stress of rapid social changes
What did Dorothea Dix do?
she was an advocate for moral therapy in America and initiated legal reforms for jails, asylums and helped establish over 30 mental institutions
What was thought to cause insanity in the 1800s?
biological and “moral” causes
What did Clifford Beers do in the 1900s?
he founded national committee for mental hygiene (1909) and improved quality of care of mental patients
What two other things did Clifford Beers do to contribute to the mental hygiene movement?
he spurned research on prevention of mental illness and provided information to public about mental illness
What does somatogenic mean?
emphasize physical and bodily causes of mental disorder
What does psychogenic mean?
emphasize psychological and mind-related causes of mental disorder
What Integrationist view?
cause of mental disorder best understood as a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors