Chapter 1: Abnormal Psychology: Historical and Modern Perspective

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Goodness of Fit
The idea that behavior is problematic or not problematic depending on the environment in which it occurs
Shared behavioral patterns and lifestyles that differentiate one group of people from another
Culture-bound Syndrome
Abnormal behaviors that were specific to a particular location or group
Behavior that may violate societal norms but is not always negative or harmful to others
Abnormal Behavior
Behavior that is inconsistent with the individual’s developmental, cultural, and societal norms , and creates emotional distress or interferes with daily functioning
Dimensional Approach
An approach to understanding behavior that considers it from a quantitative perspective not a qualitative perspective
Developmental Trajectory
The idea that common symptoms of a disorder may vary depending on a person’s age
The process in which a circular instrument was used to cut away sections of the skull, possibly in an attempt to release demons from the brain
Imbalance of fluids found within the body that was thought to result in mental illnesses
Father of medicine. Famous Greek physician that produced a diagnostic classification system and a model by which to explain abnormal behavior. Identified hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, mania and hysteria.
The Classical Period (Greek and Romans)
People believed abnormal behavior stemmed from an imbalance of humours, which consisted of blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm
Nineteenth Century
The emphasis was on viewing people with mental illness as worthy of receiving respect and kindness, and incorporating moral treatment as the method of care.
Ancient Egyptians
Believed that spirits controlled much of the environment as well as aspects of a person’s behavior
His areas of expertise included many fields of medicine: neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. He discounted the “wandering uterus” theory about hysteria.
Medieval Europe
Demons were considered to be the source of all evil. Church officials interpreted negative behavior as the work of the devil or witchcraft
Mass Hysteria
A situation in which a group of people share and sometimes even act upon a belief that is not based on fact
Emotional Contagion
The automatic mimicry and synchronization of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements of one person by another
Johann Weyer
The first physician to specialize in the treatment of mental illness
Philippe Pinel
Proposed that mental illness was often curable and that to apply appropriate treatment, the physician must listen to the patient and observe his behavior
Quaker William Tuke
Established the York Retreat that was designed to allow people with mental illnesses to live, work, and relax in a compassionate and religious environment
Animal Magnetism
A force that Mesmer believed flowed within the body and, when impeded, resulted in disease
Placebo Effect
Effect in which symptoms are diminished or eliminated not because of any specific treatment but because the patient believes that a treatment is effective
Dementia Praecox (now called schizophrenia)
Kraepelin’s name for a psychological disorder characterized by deterioration of mental faculties
Talking Cure
A therapy in the form of discussion of psychological distress with a trained professional, leading to the elimination of distressing symptoms
Sigmund Freud
Introduced psychoanalysis. Believed the roots of abnormal behavior were established in the first 5 years of life
A theory of abnormal behavior originated by Sigmund Freud that was based in the belief that many aspects of behavior were controlled by unconscious innate biological urges that existed from infancy
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
A form of learning in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response
Behaviorism (John B. Watson)
The theory that the only appropriate objects of scientific study were observable behaviors, not inner thoughts or feelings
Scientist-practitioner Model
When providing treatment, psychologists rely on the findings of the research. They investigate topics that help to guide and improve psychological care
A nerve cell found throughout the body and the brain
A space between neurons
Chemical substances that are released into the synapse and transmit information from one neuron to another
The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and the interaction of that system and behavior
Biological Scarring
The process by which years of living with a disorder cause changes in the brain
Behavioral Genetics
The field of study that explores the role of genes and environment in the transmission of behavioral traits
Viral Infection Theory
The theory that during the prenatal period or shortly after birth, viral infections could cause some psychological disorders
Ego Psychology
A form of psychodynamic theory that focus on conscious motivations and healthy forms of human functioning
Operant Conditioning (F.B. Skinner)
A form of learning in which behavior is acquired or changed by the events that happens afterwards
A contingent event that strengthens the response that precedes it
The application of something painful or the removal of something positive
Vicarious Conditioning
A distinct type of learning in which the person need not actually do the behavior in order to acquire it
Aaron Beck
Identified the negative cognitive triad; people with depression have a negative view of the self, the world and the future
A school of thought that holds that one’s subjective perception of the world is more important than the world in actuality
Carl Rogers
His theory of abnormal behavior begins with the assumption that psychopathology is associated with psychological incongurence, or a discrepancy between one’s self image and one’s actual self
Sociocultural Models
The idea that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces
Biopsychosocial Perspective
A theoretical perspective that suggests that health is determined by complex interactions among biological, psychological, and social forces
Diathesis-stress Model of Abnormal Behavior
The idea that psychological disorders may have a biological or psychological predisposition that lies dormant until environmental stress occurs and the combination produces abnormal
Categories: Abnormal Psychology