chapter 1 essentials of abnormal psychology

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psychological disorder
dysfunction within an individual associated with distress or impairment in functioning and response that is not typical in the culture or like what is expected
psychological disorder must be experiencing
impairment, distress, and behavior not expected by the culture
psychopathology
scientific study of psychological disorders
presenting problem
the reason the client states to the practitioner why they came there
clinical description
details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder
prevelance
the number of people displaying a disorder in the total population
incidence
the statistics of new cases of a disorder in the total population at any given time
course
pattern of development and change if a disorder overtime. ex: chronic course (schizo), episodic course (mood disorder), time limited course (symptoms improve for no reason quickly)
acute onset
begins suddenly
insidious onset
begins slowly
prognosis
predicted future development of a disorder
etiology
study of the cause or the source of a disorder; includes biological, psychological, and social roots
effect does not imply
cause
distress
feeling down and worrying
psychosocial treatment
treatment that focuses on social and cultural factorsand on psychological influences as a way to make sick people better; PLATO
moral therapy
psychosocial treatment introduced in the 19th senturey, treating patients in normal environments as normally as possible to help them
mental hygeine movement
dorthea dix movement to improve care of the mentally insane by informing the public of mistreatment
psychoanalysis
first major approach to helping sick; elaborate theory of the structure of th emind and the role of the unconcious precesses in determining behavior
behaviorism
john watson; pavlov; skinner; focuses on how learning and adaptation effect the development of psychopathology
catharsis
the release of emotional material through treatmetn
id
opertes on the pleasure principle
ego
operates on the reality principle
super ego
moral principles
intrpsychic conflicts
struggle of the ego to regulate the id and the super ego
defense mechanisms
unconcious defensive processes that keep primitive emotions associated with conflicts in check so that the ego can continue its coordinating function
object relations
modern psychodtnamic thoery; children incorporate the memories and people that are close to them
self actualization
watchword of humanistic psychology; people strive to reach their highest potential against difficult life experiences
person centered therapy
client directs the therapy session rather than the counselr
behavioral model
explanation in human dysfunction based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
classical condtioning
type of behavorist learning where nuetral stimulus is paired with a response until it elicits that response
food is what in classical condition?
UCS
salivation is what in classical conditioning?
UCR
the sound of any bell that caused the food to comin in now causes salivation is what?
CS
extincition
CR is removed
systematic desensitization
gradual introduction to a fearful stimulus until extinguished paired with positive coping skills
operant conditiong
behavior operates on the environment and changes it someway; rewards reinforce behavior
Categories: Abnormal Psychology