Chapter 12: Abnormal Psychology

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Psychological Disorder
Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Medical Model
The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
DSM-IV-TR
The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, updated as a 2000 “text revision”; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Anxiety Disorder
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
Panic Disorder
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
Phobia
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
Post-Traumatic Growth
Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises.
Somatoform Disorder
Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause)
Conversion Disorder
A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.
Hypochondriasis
A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
Dissociative Disorders
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. (Multiple Personality Disorder)
Mood Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
Major Depressive Disorder
A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
Mania
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
Bipolar Disorder
A mood disorder which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of the depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Schizophrenia
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
Delusions
False beliefs, often persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
Personality Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
Antisocial Personality Disorders
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Categories: Abnormal Psychology