PSY 220- Chapter 1: Abnormal Psychology

Published by admin on

Define Psychopathology
Some psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response.
(no real single definition of psychological abnormality)
Describe Psychopathology in Depth
-involves clinically significant disturbance in behavior, emotion regulation, or cognitive functioning
-reflects dysfunction in {biological, psychological, developmental} processes
-associated with distress or disability
-beyond expected response to common stressors
What is 1-year prevalence of psychopathology?
-18.1% anxiety disorders
-26.2% other disorder
What is lifetime prevalence of psychopathology?
46.4%
-underestimation (diagnosis needed for clinicians to get paid)
-major depression has highest prevalence
-duration may be brief, mild
What are the elements of abnormality?
-suffering
-maladaptiveness (for individual or society)
-statistical deviance (could be away from norm despite commonality)
-violation of standards (in a culture)
-social discomfort
-irrationality, unpredictability, and loss of control
-dangerous to self and/or others
List some possible professions for psychopathology
-Clinical and counseling psychologists
-psychiatrist
-psychiatric social worker
-psychiatric nurse
-marriage and family therapist
-pastoral counselor
Describe the Scientist-Practitioner Model
-(A.K.A “Boulder model”)
-takes scientific approach to practice
-aims to increase scientific growth w/ clinical psych in U.S.
-urges clinicians to allow empirical research to influence their applied practice, while allowing their experiences during practice shape their future research questions
-conflict? –> that it lacks validity and does not actually benefit practitioners or scientists
Describe the domains of clinical description
1. Presenting problem
2. Clinical Description
3. Distinguish clinically significant from common human experiences
4. Describe prevalence & incidence of disorders
5. Describe course of disorder
6. Episodic, time-limited, or chronic?
7. Describe onset of disorder
8. Acute or insidious (“sneaky”) ?
Historical Context of Abnormal Behavior
-Societal views of abnormal behavior may lead to notable consequences in terms of how people will be treated
-definition rarely explanatory of cause
-Exist in all cultures across all time periods (understanding is uneven w/ wide gaps)
-assumed causes & treat. vary widely
-superstitions led to…SCIENCE
Why is there a wide variety of assumed causes and treatments for abnormal behavior?
Prevailing paradigms & Economic, religious, and political views influence the research, etiology, and treatment
Give examples of where in history these superstitions have stemmed from?
-Egypt and Greece to Roman physicians
-Renaissance and the Church
Explain reasons for ambiguity behind psychopathology.
-multiple pathways to same behavioral disorder
-everyone responds differently to different treatments
-society may be wrong in defining psychopathology (e.g. homosexuality)
-observers disagree and may not weigh same behavior in the same way
-definition rarely tells us about the cause
-assumed causes and treatments of behaviors vary widely
Describe Supernatural Tradition of Psychopathology
-causes: demonic possession, witchcraft, sorcery
-treatments: exorcism, torture, beatings, surgeries
-battle of “good” vs. “bad”
-movement of the moon and the stars
-mass hysteria (St. Vitus’ dance)
-few thought abnormality as physical disease
Describe biological tradition of psychopathology
-started back with Hippocrates’: Abnormal Behavior as a Physical Disease
-Galenic-Hippocratic Tradition
-General Paresis (Syphilis)
What was the Galenic-Hippocratic Tradition?
-linked abnormality with brain chemical imbalances
-foreshadowed modern views
What is General Paresis?
-A.K.A {Syphilis}
-a series of unusual psychological and behavioral symptoms
-cause: bacterial microorganism
-led to penicillin as successful treatment
-bolstered view that {mental illness = physical illness}
-provided biological basis for {madness}
Describe Concept of Mental Illness = Physical Illness?
-John Grey: believed insanity caused by physical causes, and patients should be treated as physically ill
-Dorothea Dix: believed treatment should parallel physical illness
Significant Events of 1930s for Psychopathology
Biological treat. were standard practice
(Insulin Shock therapy, ECT, and brain surgery)
Significant Events of 1950s for Psychopathology
Medications more available; Attempt to produce more stable drugs but were still lethal with overdose
(Neuroleptics (i.e. reserpine) and major tranquilizers)
Significant Events of 1980s for Psychopathology
Anti-depression medication available (i.e. Prozac)
Describe psychological tradition of psychopathology
-Asylums
-The Rise of Moral Therapy
-Decline with belief that brain pathology was cause
-Freud and development of “Talk Therapy”
-Humanist Approach
-Cognitive-Behavioral Approach
Describe the Establishment of Asylums
-sanctuaries to care for mentally ill
-mainly developed by religious orders
-first asylum: Valencia, Spain in 1409
-St. Mary of Bethlehem hospital in London (became known as “Bedlam”)
Describe Rise of Moral Therapy
-Issue of prisoners seen same as mentally ill
-Normalization of treatment for mentally ill
-Early founders of American medicine: Pinel in France, Tuke in England, Rush in America
Describe Freud’s Ideas and “Talk Therapy”
-Geneticist and neurologists who believes humans are animalistic
-Invented “Talk Therapy” technique: explores how unconscious mind influences thoughts and behaviors with aims of offering insight and resolution to patient seeking therapy
(e.g., Free Association and Dream Analysis: let the mind wander and eventually it will know what it needs to hear)
Describe Humanist Approach
-Belief that humans are naturally good
-rejects scientific methodology
-Personality is studied from the perspective of the individual’s subjective experience
-takes into account individual differences that makes us each behave differently
Describe Cognitive Behavioral Approach
-relatively modern, scientific approach to human behavior
-focuses on how we think and that those thought processes affect how we behave
-generalizes explanations to everyone’s behavior
Describe Modern Approach
-psychopathology is multiply determined
-considers reciprocal relations between biological, psych, social, and experiential factors
-modified definition of abnormal behavior
-sees supernatural traditions as “ludicrous” though still common belief among patients
Define Modern Definition of Abnormal Behavior
-Complex, multifaceted, and evolved
-New emphasis on neurology (w/ development of more sophisticated imaging techniques)
-increasing role of insurance companies & psychopharmacology in diagnosis
Place abnormal behavior in historical context: Compare and Contrast the historical views of abnormal behavior.
(still up for discussion)
Categories: Abnormal Psychology