Psych 390 – abnormal psychology

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Definitions of Abnormal Behavior
It is a psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected.
Psychological dysfunction
a breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning. Ex- Judy fainting at the sight of blood.
Personal distress or impairment
so shy that you avoid interactions even though you would like to have friends, then your social functioning is impaired.
Atypical or not culturally expected
sometimes it is considered abnormal because it occurs infrequently; it deviates from the average.
Ex-speaking in tongues at the line of Ralphs.
Chronic course
persistent symptoms that doesn’t go away- Schizophrenia.
Episodic
in that the individual is likely to recover within a few months only to suffer a recurrence of the disorder at a later time.
Time-limited
meaning the disorder will improve without treatment in a relatively short period.
Prognosis
the anticipated course of a disorder. So we might say, ” the prognosis is good” meaning the individual will probably recover.
Etiology
the study of its origins has to do with why a disorder begins and it includes biological, psychological, and social dimensions.
Supernatural tradition
Believed that mental illness were caused by demons, witchcraft, and sorcery. People would perform exorcism as a treatment for mental illness.They would try to scare the evil spirits by shocking them with cold water or snakes. Others believed it was the movements of the moon and the stars had effects on psychological functioning.
Biological tradition
Father of modern Western medicine
Etiology- physical disease
Diseases were caused naturally,not because of superstitions. Humors- black bile- melancholia, phlemagtic, blood, yellow bile.
Bloodletting- extraction of blood to restore humors, induced vommiting, environmental regulation- heat, dryness, moisture, and cold.
Syphilis
a STD caused by a bacterial microorganism entering the brain, includes delusions of persecution or deleusions of grandeur. Ac cure was discovered and many professionals then assumed that comparable causes and cures might be discovered for all psych disorders.
John Gray
American proponenet of the biological tradition.
Etiology= always physical
Treatments= as is physically ill
– rest, diet, room temperature and improved hospital conditions. In the 1850s.
Developmental of biological treatments
insulin shock therapy- people were injected high dose of insulin caused convulsion and sometimes death. Electro shocks, medications
Psychotropic medications
Any medicine used to treat psychological illness. Most of the medicines were discovered by accident. Neuroleptics- treat psychosis. Reserpine and psychosis-
Benzodiazepines
Calm down the central nervous system- xanax, valium. They are helpful for anxiety , but don’t operate heavy machinery, slows you down. But they are useful for treating the acute anxiety effects. They are highly addictive!
Consequences of biological tradition
Increased hospitalization- untreatable conditions- cannot treat in communities -suicidal, danger to self and others.
Improved diagnosis and classification-mental disorders can be classified. Emil Kraeplin – first to say mental disorder are discrete conditions. Science was becoming more prominent in psychopathalogy. – Good outcome
Psychological tradition
Social and env factors- Plato
Moral therapy- pinel- treating them normally, encouraged social relationships, individual attention.
Decline in moral therapy to expensive, immigrants.
Mesmer- Mesemerisim and hypnosis. Jean Charcot mentor to Freud. Hypnosis treatment. Josef Breur further hypnosis treatment.
Freud psychoanalytic
Your behavior today is heavily influenced by your first 6 years of life. If things didn’t work well you will developed fixation or problems. Believed the unconsciousID heavily influences our behavior.
ID
pleasure principle and avoidance of pain.Institutional. Its illogical- if your hungry you’ll get it without concern of others.
Ego
Operates on the reality it takes into consideration the environment and social demands.If you’re really hungry and your classmate has food this prevents us from just grabbing their food. It comes up with solutions that are rational. The MEDIATOR between ID and SUPEREGO.
superego
going to school, church. Learning about morals. The “conscious” I will feel guilty.
Defense mechanisms
Ego is trying to mediate the ID and Superego. If you can’t you develop anxiety. Its a bottom way of coping by doing something to make the situation more tolerable
Displacement
If that target is too dangerous you may end up dealing with frustration by taking it out on someone else. Displacing your anger on a safer target Ex- kicking of the dog, domestic violence.
Denial
refuse to acknowledge reality. Change reality to not fit.
Ex- substance abuse- blame it on bad luck but no alcohol problem. Taking the facts and twisting them in a different way.
Rationalization
Ego Changing focus. Ex- if you do poorly on an exam- you look at the professor fault or test being too difficulty.
Reaction formation
A person acts imposed to the conflicts their having.
Ex- worried about fornication was preaching it was wrong but yet engaged in that activity.
Hypocrite
Projection
Falsely attributes own unacceptable feelings, impulses, or thoughts to another individual. Ex- bf cheating accuses his gf of cheating.
Ex- transference
Repression
ego just represses all those harmful feelings.In trauma its so horrific that they repress that information that they have a difficulty remembering what happened.
Ex- telling what happened during a car accident
Sublimation
Displacing malaptive feelings into socially acceptable behaviors. Ex- playing hockey to hit people.
Freud
First developmental psychologist
First clinical psychologist
Carl Jung
developed “collective” uncoscious-> we all have shard unoconsciousness.
Alfred Adler
Cognitive behavior. Inferiority complex- not being good enough feeling.
One dimensional model
just looking at biological model, just looking at psychological model, social individually
Multidimensional model
– Systematic, several independent inputs that become interdependent.
neuroscience- brain and its function
Cognitive- Way we view things. If we see everything as dangerous it can be a problem.
Emotions- meant to be adaptive. suicidal is no longer adaptive.
Cultural social- some cultures express depression very differently women are more likely to be open about it and be diagnosed.
Life span developement- stage of development
Diathesis- Stress model
Genetic/Biological predisposition vulnerability plus stressful life events= psychological illness
Reciprocal gene-environment model
the genes may shape the kinds of environment we find ourselves in. Ex- Impulsivity – leads to doing a lot of things you don’t think about and it causes a lot of problems.
Cross-fostering research
Genetically anxious mice raised by non anxious mice became non anxious. Environment can override genetics
Sypathetic
Fight or Flight response, increases heart rate,
Parasympathetic
Cool system- calms the body down, rest and digest. Brings down the heart rate and brings down the blood flow.
Synapse
spaces between the neuron . Its an electrochemical process. The chemical part is in the synapse by Neurotransmitters. Electrical part is within the cell.
Reuptake
recycled back into the cell. In some people theres not enough Neurotransmitter in the synapse there are SSRIs – reuptake inhibitors. Prozac- SSRI- make more of that neurotransmitter available in the synapse.
Limbic system
The emotional center of the brain. Impulse control, sexual drive, basic hunger and thirst.
Amygdala
part of the limbic system. Emotion like fear. Triggers the fight or flight response.
HYPAC
integration of central nervous system that creates cortisol that is associated with chronic stress.
Gluamate
Increases brain activity. Excitatory
GABA
inhibitory-> decreases brain activity. chill pill, calming down, benzodiasepines
Serotonin 5HT
neurotransmitter, regulates behavior, moods, thought processes. Implicated in several psychopathalogies in depression, anxiety disorder
Norepinephrine
Older antidepressant, respiration, reaction response, tricyclaic anti-depressent
Dopamine
too much dopamine -> schizophrenia. too low Parkinson’s disease. dopamine is associated with addiction
Baxter study
Two groups of people with OCD. Who have high level in PFC, both group got treatment both got getter. One with medicine and the other with psychotherapy. Brain abnormality can have the same results by using psychotherapy.
Placebo
beliefs that it will help me if I believe in it enough
Generalized Anxiety disorder
Excessive anxiety or worry for 6 months in reference to numerous events. Treatment – psycotherapy CBT- focus on problem solving and medications. Worry preventionThey worry about it but don’t meet the challanges its a never ending cycle. Meds- Zanax
Panic disorder
The fear of fear. Afraid of having a panic attack. Persistant worry. Treatment- SSRIS, benzodiazepinees, Ticyclec. Therapy -> CBt. Treatment-> therapy- elimination of safety behaviors. eleminate the zanax bottle. expusure to fears by not having a panic atttack.
Agoraphobia
fear of situations you cannot escape from. causes generalized vulnerbilities, ex- I only go to ralph but I need to bring my husband with me.
Social phobia
extreme irrational fear of social situations. Interferes with functioning. Acoidance of situations and or endure them with distres. ex- meeting someone new, public speaking.
Categories: Abnormal Psychology