Unit 12: Abnormal Psychology

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psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thought, feelings, or behaviors
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
medical model
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
DSM-IV-TR
the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FOurth Edition, with an updated “text revision”; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
post-traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/ or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
post- traumatic growth
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
somatoform disorder
psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause
conversion disorder
a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
hypochondriasis
a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
Categories: Abnormal Psychology