Unit 7: Abnormal Psychology (AP Psych)

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Psychologically disordered behavior is…
Maladaptive (harmful) and/or disturbing to individual; disturbing to others; unusual/ atypical; irrational; *characterized by emotional extremes
Anxiety Disorder
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive (harmful) behaviors that reduce anxiety; overwhelming (often irrational) sense that something horrible is going to happen
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety disorder where a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic Disorder
Anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/ or actions
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawl, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more following a traumatic experience
Hypochondriasis
Somatoform disorder where a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease; excessive preoccupation or worry about health; always under the impression that they’re sick in some way,but there’s no physical medical evidence of a problem
Conversion Disorder
Rare somatoform disorder where a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no psysiological basis can be found *self-fulfilling prophecy of medical problems
Somatoform Disorder
Psychological disorders where the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause; Characterized by the claim of medical ailments without physical medical evidence to validate the claim
Dissociative Disorder
Disorder characterized as conscious awareness becoming separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings; lose touch with identity
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Disorder where a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
Dissociative Amnesia
Disorder where a person completely forgets who they are
Dissociative Fugue
Disorder where a person forgetts who they are and decies to go somewhere else in attempt to figure out who they are; Dissociative Amnesia with an extra symptom (getting up & travelling; fleeing)
Schizophrenia
Disorder characterized by disorganized thinking, disturbed pecteptions (hallucinations- visual & auditory), and inappropriate emotions/ actions
Possible Causes of Schizophrenia
Dopamine overactivity, abnormal brain activity/ anatomy, in utero/ genetic factors, environmental factors
Dopamine Overactivity
Schizophrenia possible cause because of extra dopamine receptors; excess dopamine= intensify brain signals in schizophrenia; without such high levels of dopamine= symptoms of schizophrenia aren’t present
Abnormal Brain Activity/ Anatomy
Schizophrenia possible cause because of abnormally low brain activity in frontal lobe; increased activity everywhere, but abnormally high activity in thalamus seen in PET scan during hallucination
In Utero/ Genetic Factors
Schizophrenia possible cause because if a mother gets a virus while she’s pregnant (fetal-virus infection), there’s a higher likelihood that the child will develop schizophrenia; genetics: if both parents have schizophrenia, their kid has a much higher chance of having it too; being genetically related to someone who has schizophrenia significantly increases risk
Environmental Factors
Schizophrenia possible cause because it’s simlar to other possible causes; cluster of theoretical causes
Personality Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning; Characterized by long-standing personal characteristics in which the individual has difficulty interacting or getting along with others
Dependent Personality Disorder
Disorder characterized by an excessive need to be taken care of that leads to a submissive and clinging behavior as well as fears of separation; high level of dependency on others; goes beyond age-appropriate dependency
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Disorder characterized by disruptive patterns of thought, behavior, and functioning; excessive worrying/ fear of everything
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Disorder characterized by self-centeredness, lack of empathy, and an exaggerated sense of self-importance; highly self-absorbed; highly sensitive to criticism
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Disorder where people act in very emotional and dramatic ways that draws attention to themselves; needs excessive attention from others; highly sensitive to criticism
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Disorder where people (often called psychopath) exhibit a lack of conscience for wrongdoings, even towards friends and family members; doesn’t have any remorse; very manipulative; strong communicators
Major Depressive Disorder
Extended periods of depression; persistent feelings of sadness and worthlessness and a lack of desire to engage in formerly pleasurable activities
Bipolar Disorder (Aka Manic Depressive Disorder)
Deep periods of depresion alternating with periods of mania; disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function
Psychotic Disorders
Disorders characterized by symptoms that establish that the client is out of touch with reality (loose word associations, hallucination or delusions)
Mood Disorders
Disorders characterized by changes in the demeanor, disposition and temperament
Dependent Personality Disorder
High level of dependency on others; enduring pattern of distorted thought, behavior, and life functioning
Paranoid Personality/ Schizoid Personality Disorder
Fear of everything; chronic and persistant condition characterized by disruptive patterns of thought, behavior, and functioning
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Self-absorption; needs attention from self; characterized by self-centeredness, lack of empathy, an exaggerated sense of self-importance, and a high sensitivity to criticism
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Similar to Narcissistic personality disorder but needs attention from OTHERS
Antisocial Personality Disorder (Psychopathy/ Sociopathic)
Characterized by a lack of empathy for others, impulsive behavior, and problems with authority
Mental illnesses (Anxiety Disorders)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Arachnophobia, OCD
Mental illnesses (Mood Disorders)
Major Depression, Bipolar, Dysthymic Disorder, Cyclothymia, Mania
Mental illnesses (Somatoform Disorders)
Conversion Disorder, Hypochondrias
Mental illnesses (Personality Disorders)
Paranoid (non-psychotic), Avoidant, Narcissistic, Antisocial, Histrionic, Borderline
Mental illnesses (Dissociative Disorders)
Dissociative Amnesia, Dissociative Fugue, Dissociative Identity Disorder
Mental illnesses (Psychotic Disorders)
Paranoid Schizophrenia, Catatonic Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Schizophrenia, Disorganized Schizophrenia
Categories: Abnormal Psychology