Educational Psychology Ch. 5

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language development
-develop lang. ad children actively make sense of what they hear by looking for patterns and making up rules
-built in biases and rules may limit the search and guide the pattern of recognition
-reward and correction play a role in helping children learn correct lang. use
play a role in lang. development
biological factors
cultural factors
experiential factors
expressive vocab
works a person can speak
receptive vocab
works a person can understand
lang. milestones
-sounds and pronunciation (by 5 most have mastered sounds of their native lang.)
-vocab and meaning (6 most children understand up to 20000 words and us 2600/ children begin to understand words that express abstract ideas and hypothetical situations)
-grammar and syntax (overregulation – new rules applied too widely “broked instead of broken”)
-pragmatics (rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture/ when where how and to whom to speak)
-metalinguistic awareness (understanding about ones own use of language begins at age 5)
syntax
word order in phrases or sentences
emergent literacy
skills and knowledge usually developed in the preschool years that are the foundation for the development of reading and writing
skills to help literacy emerge
-skills related to understanding sounds and codes
-oral language skills
understanding sounds and codes
-inside out skills
-graphemes (letters)
-phonological awareness
-decoding
-phonetic spelling
oral language skills
-outside in skills
-vocab
-syntax
-print conventions
-ability to tell stories
aids in emergent literacy skills
-conversations with adults
-joint reading
-retelling stories and taking about them
-limiting time spend watching tv
bilingual
speaking two langs and dealing with the two different cultures
monolingual
speaking only one lang
critical periods
if learning doesnt happen during these periods it never will
sensitive periods
times when we are especially responsive to learning certain things
additive bilingualism
2nd lang learned in addition to 1st lang
-balanced bilingualism that is seeked
subtractive bilingualism
2nd lang replaces 1st
-due to stereotypes or criticisms
balanced bilingualism
ability to read write and speak equally well in heritage and 2nd lang
multilingual
knowing 3 or more lang
monolingual/literate students
literate in native lang but speak limited English
ELL learner
monolingual/pre literate students
ELL students
-may not read or write in their native lang or may have limited literacy skills
limited bilingualism
students can converse well in both lang but have trouble learning academically
heritage lang schools
focus on retaining heritage languages and cultures
dialect
any variety of a language spoken by a particular group
dialects and teaching
-be sensitive to their own personal negative stereotypes bout children who speak a different dialect
-ensure comprehension by repeating instructions using different words and by asking students to paraphrase instructions or give examples
-focus on understanding the students and accepting their language as a valid and correct system but to teach the alternate forms of English for future success
code switching
moving between 2 speech forms
genderlects
different ways of talking for males and females
biculturalism
ability to move btw/ 2 lang (spoken or signed) and culture while maintaining your own sense of identity
immigrants
people who voluntarily leave their county to become permanent residents in a new place
refugees
special group of immigrants who also relocate voluntarily but who are fleeing their home country because it is not safe
cultural deficit model
model that explains the school achievement problems of ethnic minority students by assuming that their culture is inadequate and does not prepare them to succeed in school
-rejected today
ELL language development
-2-3 years to develop good conversational language
-5-10 years master academic language
generation 1.5
students whose characteristics educational experiences and language fluencies are somewhere in between those of students born in the US and students who are recent immigrants
-lived most of their lives in the US
-language at home sometimes isnt English
-often speak fluent conversational English
-academic English sometimes not well developed
-tend to be “ear learners”
sheltered instruction
improve English language skills while teaching content to ELL students by putting the words and concepts of the context into context to make content more understandable