Educational Psychology chapter 11 and 12

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Social Learning theory
theory that emphasizes learning through observations of others
Social cognitive theory
theory that adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions and expectations to social learning theory
Triarchic reciprocal causality
an explanation of behavior that emphasizes the mutual effects of the individual and the environment on each other
Vicarious reinforcement
increasing the chance that we will repeat a behavior by observing another person being reinforced for that behavior
Controlling (selecting and administering) your own reinforcers
Ripple effect
“Contagious” spreading of behaviors through imitation
A person’s sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task
Human agency
the capacity to coordinate learning skills, motivation, and emotions to reach your goals
Mastery experiences
our own direct experiences – the most powerful source of efficacy information
physical and psychological reactions causing a person to feel alert, excited or tense
Vicarious experiences
accomplishments that are modeled by someone else
Changes in behavior, thinking, or emotions that happen through observing another person -a model
Social persuasion
a “pep talk” or specific performance feedback – one source of self-efficacy
Teacher’s sense of efficacy
a teacher’s belief that he or she can reach even the most difficult students and help them
Self regulation
process of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviors and emotions in order to reach goals.
Will power; self-discipline; work styles that protect opportunities to reach goals by applying self-regulated learning
a transitional phase during which students gradually appropriate self-regulated learning and skills through modeling, direct teaching, feedback, and coaching from teachers, parents, or peers
Shared regulation
students working together to regulate each other through reminders, prompts and other guidance
Self-regulated learning
a view of learning as skills and will applied to analyzing learning tasks, setting goals, and planning how to do the task, applying skills and especially making adjustments about how learning is carried out
Cognitive behavior modification
Procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive learning principles for changing your own behavior by using self-talk and self-instruction
talking oneself through the steps of a task
an internal state that arouses, directs and maintains behavior
Intrinsic motivation
motivation associated with activities that are their own reward
Extrinsic motivation
motivation created by external factors such as rewards and punishments
Locus of causality
the location -internal or external – of the the cause of behavior
an attractive object or event supplied as a consequence of a behavior
an object or event that encourages or discourages behavior
Humanistic interpretation
Approach to motivation that emphasizes personal freedom, choice, self-determination, and striving for personal growth
Expectancy x value theories
explanations of motivation that emphasizes individuals’ expectations for success combined with their valuing of the goal
Sociocultural views of motivation
perspectives that emphasize participation, identities, and interpersonal relations within communities of practice
Legitimate peripheral participation
genuine involvement in the work of the group, even if your abilities are undeveloped and contributions are small
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s model of seven levels of human needs, from basic physiological requirements to the need for self-actualization
fulfilling one’s potential
Deficiency needs
Maslow’s four lower-level needs which must be satisfied first
Being needs
Maslow’s three higher-level needs, sometimes called growth needs
Need for autonomy
the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external rewards or pressures, determine our actions
Cognitive evaluation theory
suggests that events affect motivation through the individual’s perception of the events as controlling behavior or providing information
Goal orientations
patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school
Mastery goal
a person intention to improve abilities and learn, no matter how performance suffers
Performance goal
a personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others
Work-avoidant learners
students who don’t want to learn or look smart, but just want to avoid work
Social goals
a wide variety of needs and motives to be connected to others or part of a group
Epistemological beliefs
beliefs about the structure, stability and certainly of knowledge, and how knowledge is best learned
Entity view of ability
belief that ability is a fix characteristic that can not be changed
Incremental view of ability
belief that ability is a set of skills that can be changed
Attribution theories
descriptions of how individual’s explanations, justifications, and excuses influence their motivation and behavior
Beliefs about personal competence in a particular situation
Learned helplessness
the expectation, based on previous experiences with lack of control that all one’s efforts will lead to failure
Mastery-oriented students
Students who focus on learning goals because they value achievement and see ability as improvable
Failure-avoiding students
students who avoid failure by sticking to what they know, by not taking risks or by claiming not to care about their performance
students may engage in behavior that blocks their own success in order to avoid testing their true ability
Failure-accepting students
students who believe their failures are do to low ability and there is little they can do about it
physical and psychological reactions causing a person to be alert, attentive, wide awake
general uneasiness, a feeling of tension
Motivation to learn
the tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to benefit from them
Academic tasks
the work the student must accomplish, including content covered and the mental operations required
Importance/Attainment value
the importance of doing well on a task; how success on the task meets personal needs
Interest or intrinsic value
the enjoyment a person gets from a task
Utility value
the contribution of a task to meeting one’s goals
Authentic task
tasks that have some connection to real-life problems the students will face outside the classroom
Problem-based learning
methods that provide students with realistic problems that don’t necessarily have right answers
Goal structure
the way students relate to others who are also working towards a particular goal
what an individual strives to accomplish