Educational Psychology Exam 3

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Between Class grouping
Students are separated into classes bu ability level.
-low ses and minorities are often placed in low ability settings which can lead to stigmatization.
-research doesn’t support using this method of grouping;slight benefits for those in high track classes, but high levels of loss for those in low tracks.
-tracking often based off of standardized test scores, which may not be completely accurate.
-lower quality instruction.
Within Class ability grouping
Grouping within class by performance levels for small group activities like reading.
-equal benefits for all skill levels.
-can increase achievement .
-grouping isn’t necessarily desirable, but within class is definitely better.
Holding low achieving students back or making them repeat a grade.
-Supposed to give students time to catch up.
-can lead to lack of motivation/discouragement.
-better to give struggling students special attention, diagnosis, and intensive intervention such as tutoring instead of retention or ‘social promotion’
Differentiated Instruction
Adapting content, level, pace, and products of instruction to meet the different needs of diverse students in regular classes.
-all students can reach high standards, but some may need tailored assistance to do so.
Peer Tutoring
One student teaches another
Cross Age tutoring
The tutor is several years older than the student being taught.
Same age tutoring
The tutor and the student are the same age.
-training and monitoring important
-benefits both participants
Tutoring by teachers
One to one, adult to child tutoring. It is one of the most effective instructional strategies known and essentially solves the problem of appropriate levels of instruction.
-it can be very expensive to provide to everyone who needs it, but has substantial positive effects.
-includes things like reading recovery and rescue
At Risk Student Factors Before Entering School
Factors include socioeconomic status and family dynamic.
-single parent, divorce, etc
At Risk Student Factors After Entering School
Factors include poor reading, grade repetition, and poor behavior.
After School Programs
Programs designed to keep students occupied and out of trouble when school is over each day.
-current research does not show consistent benefits
Comprehensive School Reform and School Functioning
Schoolwide approaches that introduce learning based strategies into every aspect of school functions.
-curriculum, assessment, instruction, grouping, accommodations for struggling students, parental involvement and other areas.
Technology for teachers should be used for what?
To enhance lessons/instruction for whole classes or groups of students.
Laslo’s Hierarchy of Needs
The order in which needs need to be satisfied in order to satisfy higher level needs.
-can be met partially before moving on.
-Deficiency needs first
-Growth needs second
Deficiency Needs
Those needs critical to physical and psychological well being. Once satisfied, the motivation to satisfy them diminishes.
-psychological needs
-safety needs
-belongingness and love needs
-esteem needs.
Growth Needs
Those needs that can never be satisfied completely.
-the need to know and understand
-aesthetic needs
-self-actualization needs
Attribution Theory
The explanations we create for our successes of failures as well as that of others.
-we tend to attribute success to ourselves, while we attribute failures to outside forces.
-classified by locus of control, stability, and controlability.
Internal Locus of Control
Belief that success/failure is the result of one’s own efforts or abilities.
External Locus of Control
Belief that other factors, such as luck, task difficulty, or other people’s actions, cause success or failure.
Learning Goals
The purpose of schooling is to gain competence in the skills being taught.
-when encountering obstacles, students with learning goals tend to keep trying – motivation and performance may even increase.
-generally more self regulated learners and learn more overall, but may only focus on what interests them.
Performance Goals
The purpose of schooling is to gain positive judgements of one’s competence and avoid negative judgements.
-tend to get discourage/give up more easily and may be more likely to cheat.
-many students prioritize these goals after the first few years of schooling.
Performance vs Learning Goals Implacations
You should try to convince students that learning, rather than grades, is the purpose of academic work.
-emphasis the interest value and practical importance
-de-emphasize grades/rewards
-avoid highly competitive grading/incentive systems.
-tasks that are meaningful and related to real life are more likely to lead to learning goals.
Learned Helplessness
The expectation, based on experience, that one’s actions will ultimately lead to failure.
-no matter what you do, you’ll fail.
-leads to defensive pessimism.
Teacher Expectations
Students generally live up (or down) to the expectations teachers have for them.
– particularly in the lower grades when less is known by teachers about their actual achievement levels.
Strategies for Test Anxiety
Help anxious students do their best by:
-Avoiding time pressure (give plenty of time to complete and check work)
-gradually introducing more difficult items on tests
-having simple and consistent answer formats
-providing test taking and relaxation skills trainig
-affirming them.
Engaged Time/Time On Task
The amount of time students spend actually learning.
-have interesting, well organized lessons
-have incentives for learning effectively
-accommodate instruction to the students’ level of preparedness.
Allocated Time
The amount of time available for instruction, the time during which students have the opportunity to learn.
-prevent lost time
-prevent late starts/early finishes
-prevent interruptions
-handle routine procedures
-maintain a rapid pace of instruction
-minimize time spent on discipline
Seat Work Time
Be available to work with students and monitor activities.
-informally check work and see how students are doing in order to identify problems before they waste a ton of time on seatwork.
-interactions should be as brief as possible in order to maintain on task behavior with the class as a whole.
The degree to which a teacher is aware of and responsive to students’ behavior at all times.
Classroom Management in A Student Centered Classroom
Children are more likely to be spending much of their time working with each other, doing open ended work, writing, and experimenting.
-students are often involved in setting and enforcing standards for behavior.
-rules still need to exist and be consistently communicated/enforced.
Group Alerting
Questioning strategies designed to keep all students on their toes.
-creating suspense before calling on a student
-call on students in a random order
-ask questions about preceding answers
Maintaining momentum
Avoidance of interruptions or slowdowns.
-maintain smoothness of instruction
-manage transitions
-give clear signals to which students have been taught to respond
Class Rules
Rules should be few in number, make sense and be seen as fair, and be clearly explained and deliberately taught.
Principle of Least Intervention/PLI
Correcting misbehaviors with the simplest intervention that will work. Too much time spent on discipline is negatively related to achievement.
-the goal in dealing with routine misbehavior is to do so in a way that is effective and avoids unnecessary disruptions to the lesson.
-prevention, nonverbal cues, applying consequences, praising correct behavior that is incompatible with misbehavior, verbal and nonverbal reminders, and repeated reminders.
Most Common Reinforcer for Misbehavior
Attention from either peers or teachers is the most common reinforcer for poor behavior.
ABA Programs
Applied behavior analysis programs apply behavioral learning theories in order to help create a good learning environment.
1. identify target behavior and reinforcers.
2. establish a baseline for the target behavior.
3. choose a reinforcer and criteria for reinforcement.
4. if necessary, choose a punisher and criteria for punishment.
5. observe behavior during program implementation and compare it to the baseline.
6. when the behavior management program is working, reduce the frequency of the reinforcement.
School based monitors work with students, families, and school personnel to improve attendance and engagement of students.
Home Based Reinforcement
Teachers give students a daily or weekly report card to take home and parents are instructed to provide special privileges or rewards on the basis of the teacher’s reports.
Group Contingency Programs
A reinforcement system in which an entire group is rewarded on the basis of the behavior of the group’s members.
Effective Approaches to Bullying Prevention
1. Develop and publicize a schoolwide antibullying policy.
2. educate all students on bullying and its negative effects on the school and engage peers in schoolwide efforts to prevent it.
3. provide training in social skills and recognize students who engage in prosocial activities (empathy, impulse control , and anger management are particularly important).
4. monitor locations and activities in which bullying occurs.
5. establish consequences for bullying behavior.
6. engage parents in discussions of bullying and in finding solutions.
A functional limitation a person has that interferes with the person’s physical or cognitive abilities.
A condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the environment, or a person’s attitude.
-for example, a student with a wheelchair is only handicapped when there are no ramps.
Stats On Learning Disabilities
The percentage of children ages 3-21 yrs receiving special education services in 2013/14 was 12.9%. The numbers of those diagnosed with specific learning disabilities has increased slightly in recent years, possibly due to updated definitions of such disabilities and not an actual increase in people who have them.
Difficulties maintaining attention because of a limited ability to concentrate.
-impulsive actions, attention deficits, and hyperactive behavior.
-children with ADHD do not qualify for special education unless they also have another disability condition that is defined by the law.
-drugs have mixed reactions as they can help children behave more manageable, but also have lots of less desirable side effects.
-other strategies should be tried first.
Demographics of emotional/behavioral disorders
Boys are far more likely that girls to have emotional/behavior disorders with a ratio of more than 3:1.
-neurological functioning, psychological processes, a history of maladaptations, self-concept, lack of social acceptance, family disfunction, and maltreatment can all play a role.
A developmental disability that affects social interaction and verbal/nonverbal communication.
-typically extremely withdrawn
-may have such severe difficulties with language that they might be entirely mute.
-often engage in self-stimulation activities (rocking, swirling objects, hand flapping).
-have normal or outstanding in certain areas.
-very broad range of fucntioning levels.
Special Education
Any program provided for children with disabilities instead of, or in addition to the general education classroom program.
Public Law (P.L) 94-142 (1975) Education for the Handicapped Act
Prescribed the services that all children with disabilities must receive.
-every child who is disabled is entitled to special education appropriate to the child’s needs at public expense.
-school districts or states must provide special education to children with severe intellectual or physical disabilities.
P.L 99-457 (1986)
Extended the entitlement to free, appropriate education to children ages 3-5 yrs.
-also added programs for infants and toddlers.
P.L 101-476 (1990) IDEA
Changed the name of the special-education law to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
-required plan for the transition of adolescents with disabilities into further education or employment starting at 16.
-replaced the term ‘handicapped children’ with ‘children who have disabilities.
-children with disabilities must be placed in the least restrictive environment.
Individuals With Disabilities Act Amendments 0f 1997(PL 105-17)
Reauthorized and strengthened the IDEA. Goals were to:
-raise educational expectations for children with disabilities
– increase the role of parents in the education of children with disabilities
-ensure that teachers for regular classrooms are involved in planning for and assessing said children
-include students with disabilities in local and state assessments
-support professional development for all who educate children with disabilities.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act/IDEIA (PL 108-446) 2004
Emphasized prevention and early intervention.
-allowed schools to spend special-education funds to prevent children from needing special education services
-changed definition of disabilities to eliminate discrepancies
-asked that states monitor and correct racial disparities in assignment to special education.
IDEA requires that every student with a disability has an Individualized Education Plan.
-guides the services students receive
-describes a student’s problems and gives a specific course of action to address them.
-must have measurable goals
-created by a team/committee of school professionals once the parents have consented to the IEP.
Response To Intervention is an approach to special education in which students are identified for service based on their ability to benefit from increasingly intensive instruction.
-if students do not respond to the three tiers – prevention, immediate intervention, and intensive intervention- they receive special education.14444
Individualized Family Service Plans serve children with special needs who are under the age of three.
Individualized Transition Plans are generally written before the 17th birthday of a student with special needs in order to help them transition from school to the workplace and adult life.
Supporters of full inclusion would say?
All children should be included in a general education classroom and given appropriate assistance. Pull-out programs discourage effective partnerships between general and special educator in implementing IEPs. Students with special needs are stigmatized when segregated from other students.