Educational Psychology Exam 3
-low ses and minorities are often placed in low ability settings which can lead to stigmatization.
-research doesn’t support using this method of grouping;slight benefits for those in high track classes, but high levels of loss for those in low tracks.
-tracking often based off of standardized test scores, which may not be completely accurate.
-lower quality instruction.
-equal benefits for all skill levels.
-can increase achievement .
-grouping isn’t necessarily desirable, but within class is definitely better.
-Supposed to give students time to catch up.
-can lead to lack of motivation/discouragement.
-better to give struggling students special attention, diagnosis, and intensive intervention such as tutoring instead of retention or ‘social promotion’
-all students can reach high standards, but some may need tailored assistance to do so.
-training and monitoring important
-benefits both participants
-it can be very expensive to provide to everyone who needs it, but has substantial positive effects.
-includes things like reading recovery and rescue
-single parent, divorce, etc
-current research does not show consistent benefits
-curriculum, assessment, instruction, grouping, accommodations for struggling students, parental involvement and other areas.
-can be met partially before moving on.
-Deficiency needs first
-Growth needs second
-belongingness and love needs
-the need to know and understand
-we tend to attribute success to ourselves, while we attribute failures to outside forces.
-classified by locus of control, stability, and controlability.
-when encountering obstacles, students with learning goals tend to keep trying – motivation and performance may even increase.
-generally more self regulated learners and learn more overall, but may only focus on what interests them.
-tend to get discourage/give up more easily and may be more likely to cheat.
-many students prioritize these goals after the first few years of schooling.
-emphasis the interest value and practical importance
-avoid highly competitive grading/incentive systems.
-tasks that are meaningful and related to real life are more likely to lead to learning goals.
-no matter what you do, you’ll fail.
-leads to defensive pessimism.
– particularly in the lower grades when less is known by teachers about their actual achievement levels.
-Avoiding time pressure (give plenty of time to complete and check work)
-gradually introducing more difficult items on tests
-having simple and consistent answer formats
-providing test taking and relaxation skills trainig
-have interesting, well organized lessons
-have incentives for learning effectively
-accommodate instruction to the students’ level of preparedness.
-prevent lost time
-prevent late starts/early finishes
-handle routine procedures
-maintain a rapid pace of instruction
-minimize time spent on discipline
-informally check work and see how students are doing in order to identify problems before they waste a ton of time on seatwork.
-interactions should be as brief as possible in order to maintain on task behavior with the class as a whole.
-students are often involved in setting and enforcing standards for behavior.
-rules still need to exist and be consistently communicated/enforced.
-creating suspense before calling on a student
-call on students in a random order
-ask questions about preceding answers
-maintain smoothness of instruction
-give clear signals to which students have been taught to respond
-the goal in dealing with routine misbehavior is to do so in a way that is effective and avoids unnecessary disruptions to the lesson.
-prevention, nonverbal cues, applying consequences, praising correct behavior that is incompatible with misbehavior, verbal and nonverbal reminders, and repeated reminders.
1. identify target behavior and reinforcers.
2. establish a baseline for the target behavior.
3. choose a reinforcer and criteria for reinforcement.
4. if necessary, choose a punisher and criteria for punishment.
5. observe behavior during program implementation and compare it to the baseline.
6. when the behavior management program is working, reduce the frequency of the reinforcement.
2. educate all students on bullying and its negative effects on the school and engage peers in schoolwide efforts to prevent it.
3. provide training in social skills and recognize students who engage in prosocial activities (empathy, impulse control , and anger management are particularly important).
4. monitor locations and activities in which bullying occurs.
5. establish consequences for bullying behavior.
6. engage parents in discussions of bullying and in finding solutions.
-for example, a student with a wheelchair is only handicapped when there are no ramps.
-impulsive actions, attention deficits, and hyperactive behavior.
-children with ADHD do not qualify for special education unless they also have another disability condition that is defined by the law.
-drugs have mixed reactions as they can help children behave more manageable, but also have lots of less desirable side effects.
-other strategies should be tried first.
-neurological functioning, psychological processes, a history of maladaptations, self-concept, lack of social acceptance, family disfunction, and maltreatment can all play a role.
-typically extremely withdrawn
-may have such severe difficulties with language that they might be entirely mute.
-often engage in self-stimulation activities (rocking, swirling objects, hand flapping).
-have normal or outstanding in certain areas.
-very broad range of fucntioning levels.
-every child who is disabled is entitled to special education appropriate to the child’s needs at public expense.
-school districts or states must provide special education to children with severe intellectual or physical disabilities.
-also added programs for infants and toddlers.
-required plan for the transition of adolescents with disabilities into further education or employment starting at 16.
-replaced the term ‘handicapped children’ with ‘children who have disabilities.
-children with disabilities must be placed in the least restrictive environment.
-raise educational expectations for children with disabilities
– increase the role of parents in the education of children with disabilities
-ensure that teachers for regular classrooms are involved in planning for and assessing said children
-include students with disabilities in local and state assessments
-support professional development for all who educate children with disabilities.
-allowed schools to spend special-education funds to prevent children from needing special education services
-changed definition of disabilities to eliminate discrepancies
-asked that states monitor and correct racial disparities in assignment to special education.
-guides the services students receive
-describes a student’s problems and gives a specific course of action to address them.
-must have measurable goals
-created by a team/committee of school professionals once the parents have consented to the IEP.
-if students do not respond to the three tiers – prevention, immediate intervention, and intensive intervention- they receive special education.14444